Skip to main content

Full text of "A history of the County Dublin; the people, parishes and antiquities from the earliest times to the close of the eighteenth century"

See other formats


OfTHE 





FXiRJNaTON EAU 




,--c;:]i5S- 



-5S. 



i:^ 




*r>i l^-MI I ' T*^"- 



N5. 







THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 










^ 






vk"i J 



€: 



# 



A HISTORY 



OF THE 



COUNTY DUBLIN 



thp: people, parishes axd AXTigiTriEs from the earliest 

TIMES TO THE CLOSE OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 



PART SECOND 



Boing' a Hi.stoi"\- of that portion of tho Louiil}- coin]irisi'i.l witliiii 

tho Parislios of 



DONNYBROOK. BOOTERSTOVVN, ST. BARTHOLOMEW, 

ST. MARK, TANEY, 
ST. PETER, AND RATHFARNH.AM. 



BY 



FRANCIS ELRINGTON HAL! 



D UP, LIN: ■ 

J'KIXTI-.Ti AMI I'l lU.lSIIIH l;\ \l.l,\. TlidM .V Co. (,1, 1 M I I' I , I ", A IlllK V-ST, 

1903. 



v.- 

PREFACE TO THE SECOND PART. 



Ix issuing tho soroud jnu t of my liistoiy T have lo tliaiik my 
readers for the favourable rece])tioii whicli ilu>y liave accorded 
to my attcmpi io collect the annals of my miiivc connlv. and 
to express my ap])ieciatiou of the kindly manner in wliicdi llie 
first part of tliis woik has been reviewed. 

It is my hope that the publication of the next part may not 
be so long delayed as the present one has been, and that, as 
has been suggested, 1 may be enabknl on the completion of 
the history of the parish(^s to write an intioduct ion dealing with 
the general history of the entire county. 

I wish once more to acknowledge the encouragenuMit and 
assistance afforded me by my brother fellows and members of 
tiie lioval Societv of Antitiuarians of liidand, in whose jonrnal, 
ill iiajieis of mine on '' ^fount Meirion and its lH>-tory," " The 
Antiquities from Jihukiock to Dublin," and " 'I'lie Battle (d' 
liai lim ines," some of the inf(iniiati(Ui contained in these pages 
has already a[)j)eared. 

]n the prcparatldii (d' this part for Press I have again had tlie 
beneht ol the historical and archaeological knowledge of Mi'. 
-lames ^lills, the JJcpnty Ki'cper of the ivecoicis m Iiidand ; 
:\rr. ('. Litton FalkiiK'r. the IJev. William l^>yn(dl, an.l Mr. 
Tcnisoii (iriiNi'-. I am al-o indi'btcd in a \('iy special degrei> 
to the Earl of i'mihioke and to his agent. Mr. l'"aiic NiMinni. 
I'c^idcv thc^r, I have rcrci \('d a'^sistaiicc, Inr which I am mcst 
ciiilcinl, trciii llic Most l(c\. Dr. Douiicllv, iJishon ol Canea; 
Dr. I'. W. .Joyce. .Mr. II \ JHiry. the .\ssistaiit Deputy K'ee|.er 

715'17ii 



vi PREFACE TO THE SECOND PART. 



of ilie Rocoids In Iroland ; Mr. M. J. M'Eiieiy, Sir Ariliur 
Vicars, Mr. (x. D. Burtcliaell, liev. P. Diniu'cn, Sir Fredericlv 
Shaw, Mrs. lilackbiiriie, Mr. Louis Perrin-liatclioll, Sir John 
Nutting, and Mr. AV. 1 1. Robinson. Tlio Director of the 
Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge, Di'. M. J. James, and liis 
assistant, Mi-. II. A. Chapman, ]iav(^ given me every facility, as 
have also Mr. Alfred de Burgli, of Trinity College Lil)rary; 
Mr. T. W. Lyster, of the National Lihiary of Ireland ; Mr. J. J. 
M'Sweeney, of the Royal Irish Academy ; and the Librarians 
of the British Museum and Bodleian Libraries. 

The Controller of His Majesty's Stationery (Office has per- 
mitted me lo make use of the (Jrdnance Map for the purposes of 
the frontispiece, and the blocks from which some of the illus- 
trations have been taken have been lent me by the Council of 
the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, and by the Editor 
of the " Transactions of Quatuor Coronati Lodge." 



F. ELRINGTON BALL. 



Dublin, 

April, 1903. 



CONTENT' S 



Parishes of Donnybrook, Booterstown and St. Bartholomew, and 

Part of the Parish of St. INIakk : 

I'age 

Merridii and its Castle, .... 1 



Booterstown and the Blackrock Road 

SiinnioHscourt, 

Sandyinouut, 

Riiagsend, 

Baggotrath, 

Donnybrook, 

Ecclesiastical History, 



22 
29 
33 
33 
42 
48 
57 



Parish of Taney 



Duiidruiii and its Castle, 

Balally. 

Roebuck, 

Mount Merrion, 

Ecclesiastical History, . 



64 
73 
75 
80 
95 



Portion of the Pahimi of St. Peter 

Ratlimines, 

Ranelagli and Sandford, 

Milltown, 



100 
108 
110 



Paris-ii of Rathfarnham : 

Rathfariihain and its Ca.stle, 

Rathgar, 

Terenure and Kimmagc, 

Ecclesiastical History, . 



Ill 

I I I 

147 

. 152 



Index, 



157 



INTRODUCTION TO THE SECOND PART. 



The parishes wliidi luive been o-roujiod in this part of the 
history lie to the south of the City of Dublin in the Baronies 
of Rathdown, Dublin, and T'pper Cross. They are bounded 
on the east by the sea, on the south by the parishes of Monks- 
town, Stillorg'an, Kilmacud, Kilgobbin, and AVhittMduucli. on 
the west by tlu» ])arishes of Tallag-lit and Ciaunlin, and on the 
north by the City of Dublin, and are intersected by the River 
Dodder, the most important river next to the Liffey in the 
County Dublin. AVith the exception of portion of the parishes 
of Taney and Ratlifarnham they comprise ihickly populateil 
suburban districts, foiming' two of the laigcsi townships in the 
metropolitan county, Raihmines and Pembroke, and portion 
of the township of IJlackrock. 

At one time these parishes were closely connected; their 
churches were portion of the corps of the Archdeaconry of 
Dublin, and lu-aily all Ihc hinds which they cdiitain were 
divided between three owners, the Fitzwilliams of ^leiiion, 
who arc now rcpiocnlcd I)y the Earl of Pembroke; the Brets 
of Rat h t'arnJiani. wlm wcic succee(h'd hy (he Loftuses; and 
the Archbishop of Diihlin. This hisioiy treats of these 
parishes, when tlieic weic hui eh'Ncn i'csi(h'nces of any inijxn- 
tance within thoii' Ixmnds, namely, the ('aslles of Meirion, 
Booterstown, Slnimon^coiii t , Baggot i at h, Donnybiook, Roebuck, 
Dundruni, Bahdiy, Kathmincs, Rat hfaiii h;im. and Teicnuic; 
:iii(l toiii |)l;iccs (if W()i>liip. imnicly, (he ('liuidics of Doiiiiy- 
liiook. Dnmliiim, iind I ':il li In i ii li;i m , ;ind Ihc sumH chiiiicl of 
Merrion. The l:ind> wcic cntiicly ilcxolcd tn ;igiiciilnirc, ;nid 








eS 






4^ 






a 






o 






^-1 






o 






• >i 






CO cS 






« 






r^ 












(+4 •— < 






S? 






-M ^ 






gfi 












Gg 






^M 






c ;>i 






ctf 






05 rfl 






aj _, 


















^ i 






t^H^ 






Th 






1— » 






fcb 






Oj 






W .• 






Oj 






--H >i 






8f^ 






f^ T 


















O c 




^-^ 


r5 










=^ 


'oj 




^ 








. 1 1 


, 


O 




■^ 

■^ 


'-^ 


«2 


tN 


-^ 








r/: 




^ 


1— 1 








n 


•-- J 


t4H 


JS 


>- 


I 3^ 


(A 






3 

03 


::s^ 


p 




tO 


"^ 


m 


^ 


-M 




§ 


^"-a 


M 


^ 


13 


M 


'^ 




01 






Cfl 


S^ 


=1 '>i 


E 


;o 


^ 


o 


's 


^ 


l^ 








&J 


T! 53 








f. 


f? 


1 o 


<u 




'^H 


> 


s 


a> ^ 


< 


S 


hI 




1 


-1 




v.^ 


^ 1— 1 

^. 

^ o 
offi 

r/l 

h1 

. o 

• ^ 
a o 

o 

H- 1 
CM -*^ 

ps 

O 

60 

C 



P3 



Parishes of Donnybrook, 
Booterstown, & St. Bartholomew, 



AND PART OF THE 



Parish of St. Mark, Dublin. 

■ Formcrli/ the Parii^h of Danni/brook — i.e., Diutihudrh-Bror vr tin- Chnrrh "/ St. Broc, 

mill part of the Parish of St. Kcrin.) 



The Parish of Donnylirouk in the seventeenth century iippcars to liave consisted 
of the Tiiwiihuuls of Jlerrion, IJooterstown, Sinnnonscourt, Donnyhi-ook, Forty 
Acres, and llaggotrath. 

These Townlauds with an addition from the Parish of St. Keviu, are now represented 
by the modern Townlands of Annefield, Baggotrath, Baggotrath East. Balls- 
bridge, Beggarsbush, Blackrock, Booterstown {_i.e., Baile-an-bhothair, or the 
Town of the Road), Clonskeagh {i.e., Cloonske, or the Meadow of the White 
Thorn Bushes), Donnylirook East and West, Forty acres, Irishtowii, Merrion 
(Nos. I. and II.), Priesthouse, Ringsend {i.e., Rinn-Aun, tlio Point of tin; Tide, 
or more probably the end of the Rinn or jmint >, S;illyniount, Sundyniount, 
Simnionscourt, Smotscourt, anil Willianistown. 

The small portion of the County Dublin, in the Parish of St. Mark, was reclaimed 
from the foreshore, and is known as the Town laud of the South Lots. 



MERRION AND ITS CASTLE. 

Meeeion, now a .sulnirb of Dublin, lying about three miles to the 
south-east of the city, on the coast, and intersected by tlie road to 
Blackrock and by the Dublin and Kingstown Railway, containsi 
no building of cirlicr date than the eighteenth century. It was, 
however, for many generations the home of a family foremost 
amongst the lantUcl propi'ietors in the metropolitan county, and 
the ground now occujiied by the Asylum for tiie Female Blind, 
opposite Merrion Railway gates, was for several ccntuiies the site 
of one of the principal mediaeval castles in the iici^libouilKidd of 
Dublin, the I'uins of which were removed niurc than a hundred 
years ago. ... 

The Fitzwiliiams of Mc I'rinn, now rc^pi'cstMilcd bv tlir Karl of 
I'liiihi iiki' and .Mnnt'-;"nii'ry (ihiir discindanl in thr fi'in.ilc line 
and tin nwnci- nj' tlicii' estates), were a fainily .inidnL^sl whoso 
membLis the sovereigns of England found many uf their most 

B 



2 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, &C. 

valiant liegemen and faithful adherents, and are also remarkable 
as being one of the few families in Ireland descended from early 
settlers which retained their property through all the troublous 
periods. The first of the house to come to Ireland are said to 
have arrived in the reign of King John, and to- have been members 
of the great English family to which Earl Fitzwilliam, the inheritor 
of the Earl of Strafford's estates in Yorkshire and the County 
Wicklow, belongs — a statement which led the Fitzwilliams of 
Merrion in the seventeenth century to cease to use distinctive arms 
and to adojDt those which Earl Fitzwilliam bears. 

The fourteenth century saw the Fitzwilliaui family firmly estab- 
lished in the southern portion of the County Dublin, and before 
long they rivalled in the extent of their possessions the monastic 
owners of Monkstown and Kill-of-the-Grange. In the fifteenth 
century they had acquired no less than four manors- — those of 
Merrion, Thorncastle, Dundrum, and Baggotrath. The three 
former manors included the lands now known under the denomina- 
tions of Merrion, Booterstown, Mount Merrion, Kilmacud, Dun- 
drum, Ballinteer, Donnybrook, Ringsend, Irishtown, Sandymount, 
and Sidney Parade, while the manor of Baggotrath embraced the 
lands on which Merrion Square, Fitzwilliam Square, and the 
adjoining streets now stand, as well as those forming a. great 
portion of the Pembroke Township. Speaking in genera] terms, 
the property of the Fitzwilliams, which has come down in its 
entirety to the Earl of Pembroke, extended from Blackrock and 
Kihnacud, where it joined the lands of the Abbey of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary and of the Priory of the Holy Trinity, to Trinity 
College, then the Priory of All Saints, and to St. Stephen's Green, 
formerly portion of the estate of the Coi-poration of Dublin. 

It was not until the beginning of the fifteenth century that the 
lands of Merrion, which then constituted a manor, came into the 
possession of the Fitzwilliams. These lands which lie within the 
franchises of the city of Dublin, and over which the Corporation 
had certain rights, appear to have been originally portion of the 
lands of Donnybrook, and to have been always held in conjunction 
with the adjoining manor of Thorncastle, which included the lands 
lying between Merrion and Blackrock. The first owner of Donny- 
brook and Thorncastle after the Anglo-Norman Invasion was 
Walter de Rideleford, Lord of Bray, who was given the greater 
portion of such of the lands to the south of Dublin as were not in 



MERRION AND ITS CASTLE. 



the possession of ecclesiastical establishments. He was a brave and 
noble warrior, who is said to have slain the leader of the Norwegian 
army which came to the assistance of the Irish when they were in- 
vesting Strongbow's forces in Dublin, and in addition to the grant 
of lands to the south of Dublin, he was also given a large tract at 
Castledermot in the County Kildare. This warrior was succeeded 
by another owner of the same name, and it was not until 1244 that a 
Walter de Rideleford ceased to be identified with Thorncastle. By 
marriage with an illegitimate descendant of Henry I., the de 
Eidelefords had become connected with the reigning house, and 
also through the same alliance with many of the leading Anglo- 
Norman invaders, the founders of the houses of Fitzgerald, Fitz- 
maurice, and Carew. 

The last Walter de Rideleford connected with Thorncastle had 
two daughters. One was twice married, first to Hugh de Lacy, Earl 
of Ulster, and, secondly, to Stephen de Longespee, sometime 
Justiciary or Viceroy of Ireland. The other married Robert de 
Marisco, who was son or brother of a successor of Stephen de 
Longespee's in the chief governorship. Robert de Marisco and his 
wife predeceased her father, and on the latter's death in 1244 his 
Dublin estates passed to their only child, Christiana de Marisco, 
who was then an infant. As an heiress she became a ward of 
the Crown, and the King, as was then customary, gave the custody 
of her lands and bestowal of her hand in marriage to a guardian, 
in her case one Fulk, of Newcastle; declaring, although she was 
then but two years old, that it was his intention she should become 
the wife of her protector. The royal decree was not infallible. 
Five years later she was under the care of Ebulo de Geneve, and 
described as his wife. Again man proposed but Providence dis- 
posed, and she escaped from the care of Ebulo dc Geneve to retain 
her maiden name thi-ough life. She was on terms of intimacy 
with Eleanor of Provence, the widowed Queen of Henry III. ; and, 
as she accompanied her royal mistress abroad after tli(> Queen had 
taken the veil, she jDrobably followed the example of her royal mis- 
tress in joining a religious community. This lady was possessed of 
great wealth, which she freely spent in the service of Queen Eleanor 
and her son, Edward I., and on being granted lands in England she 
assigned her Irish property to the Crown ('). 

(») Swcftman's Calendar, 1171-1284; "The Xormaii Sctlleiiicnt in i.cinstrr." 
I )y James Mills, Jonrnnl, K.N.A.l., vol. xxiv., p. Hi.'J; " Sontj of Dcnnni .unl il,,. 
Karl," Pfiitcd liyd. 11. Orpcri ; ^Jiraldi ('aiiil)r( iisis OfUTa in Rolls' Scric-; ; Lyiali'.s 
" lA-t^al inslitiiti.iiis in Ircl.-iml diirinL' <lic icii.'n of llcniy 11." ; Cokayno's " ("oni- 
plolc Peerage," v(j1. i., p. \'.\ : " Di- (ionary of .National Mio},'rapliy," vol. \\ii.,p. 
170, vol. xxxvi , |). KH ; " C'liarluiarivs of .St. Mary's Abbey." 

It -' 



\ 

\ 



PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, &C. 



At the close of the thirteenth century the manor of Thorncastle 
was held from the King by William le Deveneis, who became one 
of the judges of Ireland, and was knighted. He began his official 
career in Ireland as Remembrancer of the Exchequer, and, subse- 
quently, it was alleged, through the goodwill of an ecclesiastical 
viceroy whom he had placated by gifts of land near Coolock, 
obtained other offices. The custody of the King's demesnes in 
Ireland was committed to him, and he was given a grant of lands 
in the mountainous country adjoining the royal forest of Glencree. 
The profit from these he did not long enjoy. Until about the year 
1290 the Irish and the Anglo-Norman invaders lived in comparative 
concord, but from that time constant warfare was carried on 
between the inhabitants of the hills, and those of the low lands. 
In a petition toi the Crown William le Deveneis set forth that his 
tenants had fled, and although he was given authority to compel 
them to return, and to enclose his lands for the preservation of 
game, the lands near Glencree had to be given up as valueless, and 
he was obliged to fall back upon lands like those of Thorncastle 
nearer to the seat of government. From William le Deveneis the 
lands of Thorncastle passed to Walter de Islip, jDrobably a kins- 
man of the Archbishop of Canterbury of that name, who flourished 
about the same time. Walter de Islip was an ecclesiastical pluralist 
who held amongst his benefices and dignities a cure of souls in the 
diocese of Norwich, the parish of Trim in the diocese of Meath, a 
canonry in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, a jDrebend in the 
diocese of Ossory, and the precentorship of Ferns Cathedi'al, as well 
as the lay offices of Chief Baron and Treasurer of the Irish 
Exchequer. From him the lands of Thorncastle passed, about the 
year 13'20, to Robert de Nottingham, one of the wealthiest citizens 
of Dublin, and mayor of that city. 

The earliest indication of the existence of a castle at Merrion is 
in 1334, when Thomas Bagod, a member of the family from which 
the district of Baggotrath derived its name, signed there a deed 
relating to the lands lying to the north-west of Merrion, now 
known as Simmonscourt. The lands of Thorncastle and Merrion 
had before that time come into Bagod's) occupation, through his 
marriage to^ Eglantine, vv^idow of Robert de Nottingham, and after 
his death a year or two later they passed to John, son of Matthew 
de Bathe, of the County Mcath, who married a daughter of Robert 
de Nottingham. By John de Bathe the lands of Thorncastle and 
Merrion were in 1366 assigned to Sir John Cruise, the distinguished 
soldier and diplomatistj already mentioned as owner of the adjacent 



MERRION AND ITS CASTLE. 



lands of Stillorgan, and from the fact that he is described as of 
MexTion, and dated a deed there. Cruise appears to have resided 
sometimes in the castle. From him, at the beginning of the fifteenth 
century, the lauds passed to the Fitzwilliams (i). 

The first of the Fitzwilliams to become owner of the lands and 
manor's of Merrion and Thorncastle was James, son of Hugh Fitz- 
william. whose near relatives were then seated at Dundrum and 
Swords, and his succession to them arose like that of the Derpatricks 
to Stillorgan, from his marriage to a daughter of Sir John Cruise. 
About the year 1420 they jDassed to his son, Philip Fitzwilliam, 
and as the latter was then a minor the custody of his property and 
guardianship of his person was entrusted, after having been for a 
short time held by Hugh de Burgh, to James Cornwalsh, Chief 
Baron of the Irish Exchec^uer, who is stated to have met his death 
in the Castle of Baggotrath at the hands of a kinsman of Philip 
Fitzwilliam. On attaining to years of discretion Philip Fitzwilliam 
became involved in the events which preceded the Wars of the 
Roses, and took the side of the White Rose, or Yorkist party. In 
1446 he is described as one of the counsellors of Henry VI., and 
a servant of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, the father of 
Edward IV. and Richard III., and is said to have rendered good 
service to the Crown, not only in Ireland against the enemies of 
the Pale, but also in England against the house of Lancaster. 
Philijj Fitzwilliam was succeeded by his son Stephen, who in 1464, 
when residing at Merrion, entered into a c(nitract with Dame 
Elizabeth Fleming, doubtless one of the Slaiio family, to marry her 
daughter by a previous marriage, Anne Cruise, on condition that 
the Cruises relinquished any right which they might have to liis 
property. On Stephen Fitzwilliam's death his lands passed to his 
son James, charged witli a jointure to his widow, wlio married, 
secondly, R(jbert Cusack ; and as James Fitzwilliam was a minor 
they were for a time in the custody of guardians appointed by the 
Crown r-^). 

At the end of the fifteenth ceiituiy the manor of Merrion came 
into the possession of the branch of tlie Fitzwilliam family seated 



(I) Swcciiiian's Calendar, 12r)2-1.307 ; Jii-ticiaiy, MiMiK)raii(lii, ai\(l Plea llolls ; 
" TIk- lloyai I'^Jrest of (JifiKTcc," by 'J'. P. \a- Faini. Jniirnnl. h'.S.A.f., vol. xxiii., 
]). 274; Calendar of Kn;,'lisli Patent and Close Itolls ; Cottoirs "Fasti Eeelesiio 
Hiljernice " ; " Dietionary of Xalional Bin^'iaphv," vol. x.xi.x., p. 74; Chri.st. 
Church Deeds, No.s. 589, 741 ; Patent llnlls, |.|). •_'7" iS,"). 

{■■') .Memoranda Polls; Patent KuHm, p]). 18:{ 220. 



PARISHES OF DONNYCROOK, &C. 



on the lands of Dundrum. The latter lands had been assigned in 
1365 to William, son of Richard Fitzwilliam, and were at the end 
of the fifteenth century owned by Thomas Fitzwilliam, the fifth in 
direct descent from him. In Thomas Fitzwilliam were combined 
the possession of large property, a liberal education, and high con- 
nections. When he had come of age in 1486, ho had succeeded in 
addition to the manor of Dundrum to the manor of Baggotrath, 
and to other lands in the Counties of Dublin and Meath ; and 
in order to fit himself for the care of his estates he went three years 
later to London to sti;dy law. His immediate ancestors had 
married into the houses of Ferrers, Bellew, and Holywood — all 
families of importance in the Pale — and to the position and pos- 
sessions which he inherited he added by his own marriage. His 
wife, Eleanor, daughter of John Dowdall, was, on her mother's side, 
a grand-daughter of Sir Jenico Dartasse, a wealthy native of Gas- 
cony, a country which in his time joassed from English to French 
rule, who had settled in Ireland and married intO' one of the old 
Anglo-Norman families, the Plunketts of Killeen, and ultimately 
the Fitzwilliams inherited the gi'eater portion of the Dartasse pro- 
perty. - 

There is a curious tale told of their succession to it. Thomas 
Fitzwilliam's mother-in-law married three times, her first husband 
being Thomas Barnewall, her second John Dowdall, and her third 
Rowland Eustace, Baron of Portlester, sometime Lord Chancellor 
and Treasurer of Ireland. She had by her last husband, amongst 
other children, three daughters, who married respectively Sir 
Maurice Eustace, Sir John Plunkett, and Sir Walter de la Hyde. 
On a certain occasion while these ladies, with their husbands, 
and Thomas Fitzwilliam and his wife, were searching in a house in 
Dublin for papers concerning their mother's estate, Sir Maurice 
Eustace discovered a deed by which their mother had settled her 
property on her heirs by her marriage to John Dowdall. This 
deed Sir Maurice Eustace secretly took away with him, and, as 
soon as they had parted from the Fitzwilliams, told the others its 
purport. Its provisions were considered unjust, and it was jDro- 
posed that the deed should be burned. To such a course Sir 
Walter de la Hyde, in whose chamber in the White Friars' Monas- 
tery, near the modern Aungier Street, they were assembled, would 
not agTee, but on the bell in the White Friars' Church beginning 
to toll he, being a pious man, went off to his devotions, and during 
his absence the deed was consigned to the flames. Of this his wife 
told him on his return, much to his sorrow and discontent. The 



MERRION AMD ITS CASTLE. 



next Lent, •" being sore moved in their conscience," the de la 
Hydes disclosed what had been done, and enabled the Fitzwilliams 
to obtain possession of the whole property — a service which the 
Fitzwilliams rewarded by allowing the de la Hydes to retain tho 
portion then held by them. 

Although sometimes described as of Merrion, both Thomas Fitz- 
william and his eldest son, llichaid, who succeedotl liiiii on his death 
in 1517, appear to have made Baggotrath Castle their principal 
residence. The only record concerning Merrion in their time is a 
lease made in 1519 by Richard Fitzwilliam on his going to England 
of all his messuages and lands within that manor to a physician 
called Owen Albanagh. The lease reserves a rent of twelve marks 
besides the paynrent of an annual custom of hei'rings and other fish, 
and provides for the resumption of possession by the landlord on 
his return to Ireland. 

Richard Fitzwilliam, who succeeded Thomas Fitzwilliam as his 
eldest son, and who married one of the de Bathes, was a most 
trusted adherent of Gerald, ninth Earl of Kildare, the father of 
Silken Thomas, who was connected with both the Fitzwilliams and 
the Eustaces, and acted as intermediary in the dispute concerning 
the Dartasse property. When the Earl was summoned to Eng- 
land to render an account of his government as Lord Deputy, 
Richard Fitzwilliam went in his train. To the Earl's influence was 
doubtless due the offices of honour and emolument which Richard 
Fitzwilliam held, including those of groom of the chamber to Henry 
VJIL, seneschal of the royal manors near Dublin, and gentleman 
usher of the Irish Exchequer. His death took place in 1528, when 
he was still but a young man. Ilis will shows him to have been a 
devoted son of the Church, and a man whose object it was to estab- 
lish and perpetuate the position to which his familv hail attained. 
To the White Friars' Monasteiy in Dublin Fitzwilliam bequeathed 
an endowment for a priest to pray for him daily for ever, a legacy to 
repair the monastic buildings, the rent of certain lands until his heir 
came of age, and a gown of satin and a doubh^t of green velvet to 
make vestments; to the Church of Mcriion (tiic site of which is 
indicated by the disused burial gi-ouiu1 on Ihe Hlacki-ock Road) he 
left also a gown of camlet and a (loul)l(l of satin ; ami (o his 
ghostly father his fim.'st ijlack hose. On his tomi:) in tlie Church 
of tho White Friars he directed that a great marble stone should 
be laid with a luass engravcil with i-eprcsontations of hiui^eir, his 
■wife, and his children " after the custoiu <il' ijigland." F(U his 



8 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, &C. 

cbildren and for his brothers and sisters, including William, who 
rose to high favour at the English Court, Nicholas, who was in 
holy orders and held the dignity of Treasurer of St, Pati'ick'e 
(,'athedral, Alison, who married Ghristoplier Ussher, a great grand- 
uncle of Aixjlibishop James Ussher, and Margaret, who married 
William Walsh, of Carrickmiues, he made amplei provision. 

The value of the Fitzwilliams' property was then vastly different 
to what it is in the present day. The only source of income, 
besides agriculture and the sale of rabbits, which abounded in the 
sandy lands, was the tribute from the fisheries along the shore 
from Blacki'ock to Ringsend ; and probably as lay owners the Fitz- 
williams did not derive so much profit from their property as their 
neighbours, the moiiastic owners of Monkstown and Kill-of-the- 
G range, while their lands were equally liable to devastating raids 
fi'om the hillsmen. They were, howevei', the principal residents 
and the largest lay landowners on the southern side of Dublin, 
and they acquired in the sixteenth century additional projjerty 
which added to their importance and influence. Their loyalty to 
the Crown was conspicuous, and when the Refonnation came they 
adopted the tenets of the Established Church, though in some 
instances their compliance with its teaching was formal. In the 
reign of Edward VI. it was found necessaiy to remind Nicholas Fitz- 
william, the Treasurer of St. Patrick's Cathedral, of the King's 
injunctions for godly and true order in the Church, and before the 
seventeenth century all the members of the family had reverted to 
the Church of Rome (i). 

Thomas Fitzwilliam, who succeeded, when about nine years old, 
his father, Richard Fitzwilliam, and who made the Castle of 
Merrion his principal residence, was one of the most illusti"ious 
members of his family, and finally established the greatness of his 
house. Archbishop Loftus speaks of him as a man eminent in 
Ireland for his services to Church and State ; and, for his bearing 
in the field against Shane O'Neill, Sir Henry Sidney, in the autumn 
cf 1566, conferred on him at Drogheda the honour of knighthood. 
His father had committed the guardianship of his son's estates and 
person to his cousin, Patrick Finglas, sometime Chief Justice of the 
King's Bench, and to his father-in-law, Robert de Bathe, who was 



(1) Memoranda Rolls; Exchequer Inquisitions, Henry Vlll., County Meath, 
No. 25, Dublin, Nos. 32, 44-46, 56, 57 ; Historical IMannscripts Conimission, Rept. 
ix., App., pt. i., p. 280; Calendar of Irish State Papers, 1509-1572, p. 98; 
Lodge's Peerage, vol. iv., p. 308. 



MERRIOX A\D ITS CASTLE. 



afterwards replaced by Cliristopher do la Hyde, one of the puisne 
judges in Finglas's Court, and though some self-interest is indicated 
in t-lie fact that Finglas secured the hand of his ward for his 
daughter, the faithful discharge of the trust is apparent from Sir 
Thomas Fitzwilliam's successful career. 

Like other proprietors of the Pale, he led a life in which the 
occupations of war were blended with those of peace. In com- 
pliance with the conditions under wliich he held his inanm- of 
Merrion, we find him serving in person with two mounted soldiers, 
and contributing towards the supply of carts in the expedition in 
1556 against the Scottish invaders, and in those of 1560 and 1566 
against Shane O'Neill. He also acted in 1560 as a commissioner 
for the must-er of the Militia in Balrothcry Barony, where he had 
acquired property, and in later years as constable of the Castle of 
Wicklow, which lay in the midst of the enemies of the Pale, whom 
it was then sought to subdue. Meantime civil affairs were not 
neglected by him; in 1559 he was returned to Parliament as one 
of the Knights of the Shire for the County Dublin, and in the same 
year appointed Vice-Treasurer of Ireland. He wa-s also prothono- 
tary of the Queen's Bench, Sheriff and Chief Guardian of the 
Peace in the metropolitan county (where he was gi'anted iti 1564 
power to exercise martial law), seneschal of the border lands 
inhabited by the Walshes, Harolds, and Archbolds ; and on Wick- 
low being constituted a county he was appointed a commissioner 
to determine its limits. 

To the English Court Sir Thomas Fitzwilliam made at least one 
visit, and the success which attended his petitions was probably 
largely due to the reputation of his uncle William. This uncle, who 
was reared in the house of one of the Fitzwilliams' tenants near 
Dundrum, was taken into the service of the great William Fitz- 
william, Earl of Southampton, then Lord Admiral of England, who 
appears to have acknowledged the Irish Fitzwilliams as kinsmen, 
and, as has been already mentioned, under Monkstown, in con- 
nection with Sir John Travcrs, whose sister he married, he became 
the Earl's trusted attendant. After the dcafh of the Earl 
he became attached to the Court. He was appoiulcil a !iieml)er 
of the Privy Council and knighted by Edward VI., and is 
spoken of by Queen Elizabeth as a person wlio stood high in In r 
esteem. His principal residence was at Windsor, wlure lu> was 
buried, but he kept np a (onncction witli Ireland, wlicie, while 
holding the office of Clerk of the Crown and llanaper, lie was 



10 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, &C. 



giveu ill 1537 the Mauor of Celbridge in the county Kildare. In 
1559, shortly before his death, he was returned to Parliament as one 
of the Knights of the Shire for the County Carlow. 

For some time after he came of age Sir Thomas Fitzwilliam 
occupied, like his father and grandfather, Baggotrath Castle, and 
also the dissolved monastery of Holmpatrick, which he held by 
lease from the Crown and lent to the Earl of Sussex during his 
Viceroyalty. But in later life Merrion Castle became his constant 
residence. From Merrion in 1566 Sir Henry Sidney, after landing 
at Dalkey and spending the previous night in Monkstown Castle, 
made his entry as Lord Deputy into Dublin. A large portion of 
his lands was kept by Sir Thomas Fitzwilliam in his own hands, 
and in his will he bequeaths to his son, corn on the lands of 
Merrion, Booterstown, and Simmonscourt, as well as at Holm- 
patrick. Besides the monastic lands of Holmpatrick he acquired 
also others at Kilternan belonging to St. Mary's Abbey. 

During his time the Fitzwilliam family became closely allied with 
the Prestons, ennobled under the title of Gormanston ; Sir Thomas 
Fitzwilliam being connected with Christopher, fourth Viscount 
Gormanston, in the most extraordinary manner. First his cousin, 
a daughter of Sir William Fitzwilliam, of Windsor, married Lord 
Gormanston, and his brother, Michael Fitzwilliam, of Donore, in 
the County Meath, Surveyor-General of the Crown lands, married 
Lord Gormanston's sister, then his eldest son married a daughter 
of Lord Gonnanston, and finally his daughter, who had been 
previously married to a son of Sir John Plunkett, married Lord 
Gormanston as his second wife. Besides this son and daughter 
Sir Thomas Fitzwilliam had a son Nicholas, who settled at Bal- 
dungan, and a son Thomas, who was educated at Oxford, and who 
settled at Moylagh in the County Meath. 

After Sir Thomas Fitzwilliam 's death in 1591 his eldest son, 
Richard Fitzwilliam, occupied Merrion for five short years. He 
took an equally active part in defence of the Pale. For some time 
he was Constable of Wicklow Castle, and Warden of the Marches ; 
and after he had succeeded to Merrion, in accordance with the 
terms of his tenure, he attended in person a gi-eat assembly of the 
Militia at Tara, accompanied by two armed men. His own outlying 
lands were still liable to the devastating raids of the hillsmen. For 
their protection he rebuilt the Castle of Dundrum, and, doubtless, 
the host of retainers, who appear in his will as recipients of such 
tokens of his remembrance as his best sorrel horse, his sorrel colt, 



MERRIOK AND ITS CASTLE. 



11 



and liis dun nag, could be relied on to guard when necessary the 
property of their master. Besides the Castle of Merrion he had 
a house in Dublin, but he died in the former place, and desired 
to be buried in the parish church of Donnybrook, directing 
that in the Chapel there belonging to his family a tomb or monu- 
ment should be erected to their memory (i). 

Thomas Fitzwilliam, who succeeded on the death of Richard 
Fitzwilliam, as the latter's eldest son, was destined to obtain the 
hereditary honours which his ancestors had earned by their valour 
and devotion to the throne, and was raised to the peerage by Charles 
I. as Baron Fitzwilliam of Thorncastle and Viscount Fitzwilliam 





Thomas, ist Viscount Fitzwilliam. 

From a Portrait by Cornelius Janssen in 
the. Fitzwilliam Museum. 



Margaret, wife of the ist Viscount Fitzwilliam. 

From a Portrait by Cornelius Janssen in 
the Fitzwilliam Museum. 



of Men-ion. When his father's death took place he was still a 
minor. About the time he came of age in 1602, he went to com- 
plete his education in London and entered as a law student at 
Gray's Inn. Three years later he married IMargaret, daughter of 



8 
111 



(') Letters and Pajicr.s of Hciiiy \'Ifr. ; CalciKlar <;t' Irish State Papers. LIO!)- 
.5; Mantiseripts of Charles HahJlav, published hv Historical .Matniscripts Com- 
lission; Christ Thiireh J)eeds, Nos. 4-H, llJ-J7, i:{:{i-':" MetcaltV.- "' Hook of KiiiLrhts."' 



lip. 104, 200; Haydn's " JJook of DiKiiities" ; Jleturn of .Meinliers of I'arliaineiit ; 
Harris's "History of Dublin," p. I}'); Lodge's Peerage, vol. iv., pp. .•{I'i-:U.") ; 
"'{'he Deseriptioii' of Irfland in 15!>S," by Itev. lOdmiind Ho<.'an, p. ."iT ; Foster'.s 
" Alumni O.vonienses" ; Exciieqiier Hiquisitions, Eliz., Dublin, Ncs. 'Jl(i,'2r>3. 



12 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, ikc. 

Oliver Plunkett, fourth Baron of Louth, whose mother was one of 
the Bagenalls, then a most powerful family ; and in the same year 
he was knighted by the Lord Deputy, Sir Arthur Chichester. 

Some glimjjses of life at Merrion are afforded us at this period. 
There we see Lord Fitzwilliam's mother, two years after* her hus- 
band's death, in 1597, on a November day, declaring her last will 
by word of mouth and leaving all she had to her trusted brother- 
in-law, Thomas Fitzwilliani, of Moylagh. There in 1605, just about 
the time of Lord Fitzwilliam's marriage, William Fitzwilliani, of 
Jobstown, near Tallaght, where a branch of the family had settled, 
succumbed to the plague when himself only a few weeks married. 
And in 1608 the Lord DejDuty's messenger for the conveyance of 
letters relates how he delivered to Lord Fitzwilliam's brother, at 
the hall door of Meirion Castle, an order requiring Lord Fitz- 
williani to produce the body of Sir Caliir O'Dogherty, who was 
married to a sister of Lord Fitzwilliam's mother, and for whom 
Lord Fitzwilliani was a surety ; and how on returning to town he 
met Lord Fitzwilliani at the cross roads at St. Stephen's Green 
riding home with his wife and eight attendants, and told him the 
mission on which he had been ensfaoed. 



'&"»^ 



Loi'd Fitzwilliam's father had broken an entail made by his 
father. Sir Thomas Fitzwilliam, and in consequence Lord Fitz- 
williani, during a great part of his life, was involved in litigation 
with his brothers and sisters. These included William, who 
married the widow of Primate Henry Ussher, and lived in the 
Castle of Dundrum ; Christoj^her, who was the principal litigant; 
Patrick, who was in the army, and was killed in 1628 in a quarrel 
with Sir Robert Newcomen ; Richard, who is described as of the 
Rock ; Catherine, who married Henry Cheevers, of Monkstown ; 
Mary, who married Lord Fitzwilliam's brother-in-law, the fifth 
Baron of Louth, and, secondly, Gerald Aylnier; and a sister, who 
married Patrick Cusack, of Rathaldron. The outlay which this liti- 
gation required was large, and was added to expenditure caused by 
his devotion to the throne. After his creation as a peer in 1629, 
money began to be lavished in the royal cause, and his lands in all 
directions became heavily encumbered, the mortgagees including the 
great money lender of the time, the Earl of Cork, who lent under 
the names of his relatives and friends, the Lord Chancellor Viscount 
Loftus, the Attorney-General Sir William Ryves, and the Solicitor- 
Gen ei-al Sir William Samback. 



MERRIOX AXn ITS CASTLE. 13 

The rebellion of 1641 and the years which followed were for 
Lord Fitzwilliani a critical time; and the claims of family affection 
and loyalty to the King did not always indicate similar paths. 
The Prestons, who were amongst his dearest and closest relations, 
as a ring inscribed with the words '"Remember Gormanston " 
reminded him, were prominent in the affairs of the Confederation 
at Kilkenny. But Lord Fitzwilliani kept himself free fi*oni the 
entanglements into which so many other Roman Catholic lords of 
the Pale fell; and, though it was not always possible for him to 
restrain his unruly dependents, he ever retained the esteem of that 
most loyal servant of the Crowm, the great Duke of Ormonde, who 
speaks of him as being, by chance or situation of his fortune, a 
man in every way faithful in his allegiance to his sovereign. When 
some weeks after the outbreak of the Rebellion the Government 
found themselves in danger of being attacked before reinforcements 
arrived from England, Lord Fitzwilliani was one of the three lords 
of the Pale who ventured to obey the summons of the Lords Justices 
to consult on measures fen- the protection of the city of Dublin ; 
and subsequently his Castle of Merrion was garrisoned by a coin- 
pany of soldiers. Thither in the following March, Sir Simon 
Harcourt was conveyed after he had received his mental wound at 
the storming of Carrickmines Castle, and thence his body was 
carried for interment next day to Christ Church Cathedral. 

A few months later, in June, the Castle was betrayed by the 
treachery of some of the garrison to a party of the rebels, and three 
hundred of them got in at a window before they were discovered. 
Owing to the rebels' want of aiiimuiiition the soldiers, some forty 
ill number, were able to iiiake good tluMr escape by l)oat to Dublin, 
but the Castle was left completely at the mercy of its uniiivitetl 
occupants. It was ])i-ol)al)ly guests of a similar kind, or followers 
overwiioiii Lord Fitzwilli.im had no control, lliai. three years after- 
wards despoiled and dismantled a l)ar(|uc huhn with corn which 
was driven ashore at Mcirion. and not, as the niaslci- alleged, 
persons acting under the direction of Lord Fitzwilliam"s two 
youngest sons. Lord Fitzwilliam, who was occasionallv to be seen 
attended by a tall young servant in a red cloak riding through his 
devastated estates, had no means of ])rolecting his ])ro])erty oi- of 
restraining the excesses of his retainers. He went (o l-'ngl.nni and 
tMidffed his services to tiie l\ing, i)n( lliev were iml aeerpled. I I is 
ojily resource was a policy of inactivity, and win n his own home 



14 PARISHES OF DONNYBKOOK, &C. 

was invaded he sought refuge at llowth with his eldest son, 
familiarly known as Dickie Fitzwilliam, and his son's wife (i). 

The year 1645 saw the appearance in Irish affairs of Lord Fitz- 
williani's second son, Oliver, who succeeded him in his titles, and 
was created by Charles II. Earl of Tyrconnel. After completing 
his education in London, where, with his eldest brother, he had 
in 1628, like his father, entered at Gray's Inn as a law student, 
Oliver Fitzwilliam obtained, with the help of the Duke of Ormonde, 
about the year 1638, a commission as Colonel in the French Army, 
and took out to that countiy under his command 3,000 men 
recruited princij^ally from amongst his own countrymen, with 
whom he was most popular. He came back to England in 1642 
seeking four hundred more recruits, and, though he found it impos- 
sible to raise them in Ireland, he secured the required number 
and returned to France with them, and with his younger brother, 
William, eventually his successor in the titles, whom he appointed 
his lieutenant-colonel. 

When Charles I.'s position became desperate, Oliver Fitzwilliam 
proposed to Queen Henrietta Maria, who was then in Paris, to go 
to his assistance, expressing a confident opinion that he would be 
able to induce the Kilkenny Confederates, provided their de- 
mands respecting the Roman Catholic religion were satisfied, to 
send 10,000 men to England to reinforce the royalist ranks. He 
had gained a great reputation as a brave soldier in the French 
wars, and the Queen, who would gladly have seen the privileges 
which the Confederates sought conceded, agreed to the terms which 
he placed before her, and recommended him to the King as a man 
deserving of every encouragement and zealously affected to the 
King's cause. He arrived in England shortly before the battle of 
Naseby, and there, under Prince Rupert, gave proof of his valour 
and martial skill. What the King said to him is not known, but 
he set out from Oxford, where the Court then was, in June, 1645, 



(1) Gra3'"3 Inn Admissions; Lodge's Peerage, vol. iv., p. 315, vol. vi., pp. 83, 
168; Will of Jane Preston als. Fitzwilliam; Funeral Entry; Calendar of Irish State 
Papers, 1606-1008, 1015-32; Chancery Decrees; " Lismore Papers," Ser. i., 
vol. iii., pp. 148, 175, 176, 212, vol. iv., pp. 183, 171 ; Chancery Inquisition, Char, i., 
Nos. 62, 64 ; Carte Papers, vol. cxviii., f. 14, vol. Ixviii., f. 383 : Borlase's " His- 
tory of the Irish Rebellion," pji. 73, 123 ; Manuscript Letters to and from Richard 
Boyle Earl of Corlv, preserved i;i the Royal Ii'ish Academy and also copies in 
British Museum, Egerton ]\Iar.uscripts. vol. 80, u. 96 ; Dei^ositions of 1641 (VVilliam 
Hodgson of Ringsend and William Rogers of Workington). 



MERRION AND ITS CASTLE. 15 

for Ireland, bearing a letter to the Duko of Oniunuk', in wliicli the 
King, while leaving eveiything to Ormonde's discretion, expressed 
the wish that Oliver Fitzwilliam's services should he accepted, and 
that Lord Fitzwilliain, although a Roman Catholic, should be 
appointed to the Irish Privy Council. It is said that the King 
promised also at that time to confer an English Earhlom on Oliver 
Fitzwilliam's father. 

When he arrived in Ireland Oliver Fitzwilliaiu found that tlio 
Duke of Ormonde had no authority to grant the concessions which 
the Confederates desired ; and as he believed that by these means 
alone could reinforcements bo obtained, he became an active agent 
in the negotiations carried on by Lord Glamorgan and Lord Digby. 
lu the summer of 1646 he served under his uncle. General Thomas 
Preston, in the expedition of the Confederate Army against the 
Parliament forces in Connaught, where he is said to have particu- 
larly distinguished himself in the successful assa^ult on Roscommon 
Castle ; but, on the Confederates determining to advance on Dublin, 
and to compel the King's Government to concede their terms by 
force of arms, he resigned his commission, and determined to 
return to Paris. As a Roman Catholic Fitzwilliam was anxious that 
the fullest privileges should be granted to his Church, but he had 
repeatedly expressed his intention of living and dying in the King's 
service, and was not willing to assist his co-religionists except in 
the paths of diplomacy. Before leaving Ireland \\c addressed two 
letters to the Did^e of Ormonde ui'ging him to agree to the terms 
which Lord Glamorgan had proposed; he told him that General 
Preston was preparing to advance against Dublin witli an over 
whelming army, and warned him that if he attemptiMl to com]iel 
the inhabitants round Didjlin to adlur(> to iiini and come into llic 
city his possessions at Kilkenny wcnild l)i' Imrnod, and all found in 
Dublin, men, women, and children, put to the sword ('). 

Lord Fitzwilliam had before that time rcturncMl to Merriou 
Castle, for the protection of wliicli his son had been given, soon 
after his arrival from England, ten muskets out of the ordnance 
store, but when General Preston's advance upon |)iil)lin was 



,") Tiray's Inn A'lniission'^ ; Lo(I;tc'k Pccrauc, vol. iv.. p. ;!17; ('i<n|i,r I'.i|>crs 
])iil)lishc(l liy Historical Maniisfripfs (Vnnniission, v()i. ii.. p. '_M('>: Carlr l'a|»'r,s, 
vol. XV., f. SH, vol. \vi.. IT. •J(»4, :{(iH. vol. xvii., f. IH-J, vol. xviii.. IT. ISli. 1 Id. .V.:{, 
r>()2, vol. cxviii., f. It: Hisforiciil .Maiiiiscripls ('ciiiinission, I'vtpt. v., pi. i., 

pp. 7, \'.),'i.>2: Calcnrlar of Iriii Stiili; I'apcrs, I(i:!:5 HUT; ('alnidar nl It stic 

State I'apers, 1044 l(i47. 



16 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, &C. 

expected he received permission, as did also his son Richard, and 
his son William, who was then living at Dundrum, to seek neutral 
quarters at Leixlip, Luttrellstown, Howth, or Turvey, and tO' take 
with him all his letinue and goods. Lord Fitzwilliam was then 
reduced to a state of the inost dire poverty. When the Duke 
of Ormonde was about to give up Dublin to the Parliament, in the 
following year, 1617, Lord Fitzwilliam wrote to him from Louth 
begging for payment of a small sum of £lb due to him for hay 
supplied for the army. Again in 1648, after the Duke of Ormonde 
had returned to Ireland, a proclamation calling upon all liege 
subjects to withdraw from the neighbourhood of Dublin, was made 
the ground of a petition from Lord Fitzwilliam for assistance, and, 
as he had no means of stocking lands if assigned to him, he was 
promised a pension of £100 a year. He had probably left his castle 
at Merrion, however, before that time, for it had been garrisoned 
by the Parliainent, and in 1648 three officers. Major Gary Dillon, 
Lieutenant John Withers, and Ensign Thomas Davis, seven non- 
commissioned officers, and forty-seven soldiers, were quartered there. 

Several of Lord Fitzwilliam's near relatives took a more active 
part than himself or his sons on the side of the Confederation. 
In the year 1650 his brother, Christopher, being then a sojourner 
in Carlow and on his death-bed, declared his last will, leaving all 
he possessed to the children of his brother, Richard, who had died 
before him. He had been actively engaged in trade between the 
Irish and English quarters during those troublous times, and pro- 
bably sometimes used, on behalf of the Confederation, a sword, 
which he had obtained from Gormanston Castle, and which he: 
desired his relatives, Robert Preston and Robert Finglas, a jDriest, 
to return (i). 

Oliver Fitzwilliam, after his arrival in Paris, had written to the 
Council of the Confederation, in February, 1647, in the most san- 
guine terms of the prospects of the royal cause, owing to dissen- 
sions which it was hoped would rend the Parliament, and recom- 
mended the Council to persist in the demand which they had made 
for the control of the churches, only advising them, as a matter of 
policy, to allow one church to be open in Dublin for the English 
religion. As a consequence of the middle course, which he adopted. 



(1) Carte Papers, vol. xiv., f. 03, vol. clxiv.. fL 21, .31.^, 341, vol. .xxi., f. 325, 
vol. clxii., f. 51 ; Historioal ^Manuscripts Commission, Kept, viii., pt. i., j,-. 595 ; 
Will of Christopher Fitzwilliam. 



MERRION AND ITS CASTLE. 



17 



he was the victim of much luisrepi'esentation. The English said he 
was promising freely the offices of State to Roman Catholics, and 
giving out that the Confederation was so pow'erful that he wished 
there were 40,000 English and Scots in Dublin for them to defeat, 
w^hile the Irish said he was a friend to the Duke of Ormonde's 
policy, and not faithful to his Church. During the two following 
years he doubtless exei'ted himself to uphold the failing royal 
cause, until the establishment of the Commonwealth and the arrival 
of Cromwell in Ireland rendered it hopeless (i). 

His second marriage — for he was twice married — had an im- 
portant bearing on his position during the Commonwealth. His 
first wife, one of the Breretons of Malpas, in Cheshire, a relative of 
Sir William Brereton, who was created Baron Brereton of Leighliu, 
belonged to a royalist family; but his second wife, Eleanor, 




Eleanor, Countess of lyrconnel. 

Frniii a Piirlniil In/ Sir I'l/'r Lilji hi Ihr Fitzwilliam Museum. 

daughter of the fust Earl of Clare, of the Holies creation, whom ho 
married before 1647, belonged to a family identified with the Par- 
liament cause, and llirough the iiilliuncc of her hrotlu-rs, Jolm, 
second Earl of Clare, and Dni/.il llnllrs. li.r liushaiid ivccivrd more 
considerate treatmcnl ;il \W liands nfll... a.it liuiil i.s (liaii lie would 
otherwise have met will,. Mr '-wn.d property in Nottinghamshire 



Pj Carl.; Piipors, vr.l. Ixvii., f. IK', vol. n.v.. f. -MM ; Ma<Tay's " ralrndar of 
Clarendon Papers in the Bodkiiin," vol. i., p. ;J(i4. 



18 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, &C. 

and Staffordshire, and had an interest in a charge, held by his first 
wife's mother (who had married, as her second husband, his nncle, 
Silvester Plunkett), on the Brereton estate in Cheshire. In 
November, 1649, he came to London, probably in order to look after 
these properties. lie was then arrested by order of the Council of 
State, and all his books and papers seized ; but after a few days' 
detention he was released, on undertaking to leave England in 
eight days. Two years later, when residing in France, he was 
given permission to return to England, and in consequence of 
exertions on the part of his wife was allowed to remain there on 
entering into a bond to be of good behaviour, for which his brother- 
in-law, the Earl of Clare, became surety. 

Fitzwilliaiii ingratiated himself subsequently with Oliver Crom- 
well, and was said tO' be the only man of his nation in request in 
London. After the death of his father and of his eldest brother he 
was given, about 1655, a grant of their estates and permission to 
come over to Ireland to recover them. A great portion of the 
estates had been seized by the authorities of the Parliament and 
leased to their friends, including Merrion, which was held by a Mr. 
John Hughes; and for their recovery Oliver Fitzwilliam became a 
suitor to Henry Cromwell, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. In a 
letter to Henry Cromwell, written from London in 1657, Oliver 
Fitzwilliam refers to the great obligations which he had conferred 
upon him, and, while declaring himself and his wife to be his 
Excellency's most faithful servants, offers to bring him a present 
of dogs and hawks on his return to Ireland. After the death of 
Oliver Cromwell he became an object of suspicion ; and it is pro- 
bable that with the improved prospects of the royalist cause, he 
was an active agent for the Restoration. In 1659 he was arrested, 
but on his giving his parole he was released, and his arms and horses 
restored to him, and during that winter he attended the meetings of 
a debating club established in London by James Harrington, the 
well-known author of Oceana, and took part in the discussions with- 
out interference (i). 

Immediately after the Restoration, Charles II. conferred upon 
Fitzwilliam the title of Earl of Tyrconnel — a title afterwards taken 

(') Calendar of Domestic State Papers, 1649 -1659 ; Calendar of the Proceedings 
of the Committee for Compounding ; Lodge's Peerage, vol. vi., p. 168 ; Cokayne's 
" Complete Peerage " ; " Dictionarv of National Biography," vol. xxvii., pp. 162, 
168. 169 ; Thnrloe's " State Papers." vol. iii., ]). 548 ; Crown Rental ; " Memoirs 
of Edmund Ludlow" ; Lansdowne Papers in British Museum, 821, ff. 272, 273 ; 
Aubrey's '* Letters and Lives of Eminent Persons," vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 372. 



MERRION AND ITS CASTLE. 19 



also by James II. "s favourite, Richard Talbot — and was urgent that 
his estates should be given back to him without delay. The Earl 
was not. however, without enemies, and a letter calculated to do him 
injury was produced before the Commissioners under the Act of 
Settlement. It caused them to hesitate, and in 1663 the Kinff 
indited a letter to the Duke of Ormonde, recommending the Earl 
of Tyrconnel to his care, and ordering that if it could not be 
effected by the ordinary course of procedure, some other way should 
be found of restoring the Earl to his property. As a result of this 
letter he was given a confirmation of his estates described under 
the denominations of Merrion, Ringsend, Baggotrath, Donnybrook, 
Simmonscoi;rt, Dundrum, Ballinteer or Cheeverstown, Ticknock, 
Owenstown, Little Bray, Glencullen and the adjoining mountain 
townland of Ballybrack, Kilternan and Ballybetagh, Kilmacud, 
Thorncastle and Booterstown. 

Merrion Castle, though much injured by the military occupation, 
still remained a substantial dwelling; and after additions and 
improvements had been effected by the Earl of Tyrconnel, it was 
assessed as a house containing sixteen hearths — a number which 
shows it to have been one of the largest dwellings in the County 
Dublin. On the second storey the arms of the family were 
engi'aved in stone, and the walls of the rooms were hung with 
tapestiy, some of which belonged to Lady Tyrconnel's niece, the 
wife of the seventeenth Earl of Kildare, and was bequeathed by 
her to her aunt as a token of her love. It was in the castle that 
the Earl of Tyixonnel, who did not long enjoy his li()ii()iir.s and 
possessions, died, and thence that his body was carried to the family 
burying place in Donnybrook Church, whrre a l)lack marble tomb 
inscribed with his full titles was afterwards raised. The Countess 
of Tyrconnel survived her husband. She seems to have taken au 
active part in the management of her husband's estate; the names 
of her family are presei-vcd in the names of the streets known as 
Clare Street. Denzille Street and Holies Street, and there is a letter 
extant from the Duke of Oiiiiundi". while lie was Lord Lieutenant, 
asking her to allow the Coi-poration of Dublin to cut sods on the 
lands of Merrion for a bowling gi-een which it w.is inleiided to make 
at Oxmantown (i). 



(') E^rfrton Manunrripts in I'.rili-^li .Mii'^cimi. ^Olrt.' f. 100; T^cport Trisli Rcconl 
Commission, vo!. iii., pp. riH, 'JK.'{ : Fleetwood's Survey: Down Survey .Map; 
Hearth Monev Roll (City of Dublin") : " Ivirl of Orrery's State I.otten." vol. ii.. 
p. 79 ; Kusseii and Prendergast's " Keport on tlie Carte Papers," p. 18-1. 



10 



PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, <kc. 



As no children survived him, the Earldom of Tyi'connel became 
extinct on the death of Oliver Fitzwilliam in 1667, but his brother, 
William, succeeded to the Viscounty of Fitzwilliam. In addition 
to performing the military service already mentioned, the third 
Viscount is said to have been Governor of Whitchurch and Licu- 
tenant-General of Shropshire during the Civil War. He married 
one of the Luttrells, and his daughters, of whom he had five, married 
into Roman Catholic families, including the Brownes of Clongowes 
Wood, the Mapases of Rochestown, and the Nettervilles of Cruice- 
rath. After the Restoration, during his brother's lifetime, he had 
resided in the Castle of Simmonscourt, and his death, which 
occurred in 1675, took place in Dublin in the parish of St. Nicholas 
Within. An account of his funeral expenses tells that on his 
death-bed he was attended by a doctor, apothecary, and surgeon, 
and ministered to by Roman Catholic clergymen, that rosemary 
and frankincense perfumed the chamber, and that his body was 
carried at night, while the bells of Christ Church Cathedral tolled, 
to Donnybrook Church, and there interred with all the pageantry 
that heralds could provide. 





Thomas, 4th Viscount Fitzwilliam. Mary, wife ot tlie 4th Viscount Fitzwilliam. 

From a Portrait in the FitzioiUiam Museum. From a Portrait in the Fitzwilliam Museum. 



William's only son, Thomas, succeeded as fourth Viscount Fitz- 
william. He also was an earnest member of the Roman Catholic 
Church. During the rule of Jame§ II, he was given a seat on that 



MERRTdN AND ITS CASTLE. 2l 

monarch's Privy Council, and appointed a, Commissioner of tlio 
Treasury, and at the time of the siege of IJmerick was in com- 
mand of a troop of horse, wliich disphiyed considerable braveiy in 
an encounter in Kerry with King William"s foi'ces. He was subse- 
quently attainted, hut I lit- attaincU^r was afterwards reversed, and 
in 1695 he appeared to take his seat, in the Irish House of T.ords. 
Although ho took the oath of fealty, he was not willing to take 
the oath of adherence to the Established Church, and was obliged 
to withdraw. In the two marriages which he contracted free- 
dom of opinion is tlisplayed ; his first wife being Mary, daughter 
of Sir Philip Stapleton, a distinguished officer under the Parlia^ 
ment, and his second wife a sister of the first Lord Rivers (i). 

The beginning of the eighteenth century saw the removal of the 
seat of the Fitzwilliams to Mount Merrion, the Irish residence of 
the Earl of Pembroke, and under that place the remaining history 
of the family will be found. Thenceforward Merrion Castle fell 
more aiid more into decay, and the neighbourhood rapidly dwiiulled 
in importance. So deserted was it about the year \7'29 that 
one of the leading Dublin journals of that day, T/ic Fl i/iinj I'nst, 
told a credulous public that Merrion was completely at the mercy 
of rats of an extraordinary size, as large as cats or rabbits, said to 
be partly indigenous and partly imported in foreign ships, which 
moved about in droves; and assured its readers that these out- 
landish animals had killed a woman and a child. The ruins of the 
Castle were visited by Austin Cooper, the painstaking antiquary, 
to whom refei'ence has so often been made, in May, 1780, when he 
formed the opinimi that the structure had l)een a piece of patch- 
work, part of it very old and pait iiKire modern, with limestone 
casements to the windows. The ground lloor, used as a cowhouse, 
and. some outlying buildings, used as a stable, wen' then standing. 
Two surly mastiffs prevented his jnaking a sketch, and on returning 
some months later for that purpose ho found to his surprise that 
the ruins were being removed, a work of no little difliculty, proving, 
as he remarks, the excellence (if old Iiish iiiasoniy (-). 



(') Lodge'.s Peeraue, vol. iv., p. 3IS; Blaeker'.s Sketches, p. 314; Tlailyn's 
iJit'iiilicH ; Historieaf Maniisciij)ts (.'oiiiiiiiAsion, llopt. x., Ap|)., pt. v., p. Kil ; 
J'>ail Wiiyht's " U.s.shcr -Memoirs," p. 12', iioU? ; " Dictionary of Xatioiml 
Jiiograpliy," vol. liv., p. OS. 

CM Tha t'lii'iiiij I'oM, .May K;, i7_".»; Cooper's Note iiook. 



22 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, <tC. 



BOOTERSTOWN 
AND THE BLACKROCK ROAD. 

The lands of Booterstown, or " The Town of the Road,"' lying to 
the south-east of Merrion, formed portion of the ancient manor of 
Thorncastle, which, as has been mentioned in the history of Merrion, 
was always held by the owners of that place. 

The original name of the lands appears to have been Cnocro or 
the Red Hill, a designation which also embraced portion of the 
demesne of Mount Merrion, but this, as early as the thirteenth 
century, gave place to the name of Thorncastle. At that period 
Thorncastle was a more important manor than Merrion, and in the 
time of Walter de Rideleford a castle stood upon the lands. This 
castle, which probably gave rise to the name of Thorncastle from 
its having been originally a rampart of earth protected by a thorn 
fence, was approached from Dublin by a bridge across the Dodder 
and by a highway which led directly from the bridge to the castle. 
It most likely stood near the town of Blackrock, as in the 
eighteenth century a bridge across the stream at the entrance to 
tlie town bore the name of Thorncastle Bridge. Sir William le 
Deveneis, after he had succeeded Christiana de Marisco, the grand- 
daughter of Walter de Rideleford, in the possession of Thorncastle, 
petitioned the Crown in 1297 to gi-ant him the fee of the lands 
which he then held on lease, and on the recommendation of a jury 
empanelled by the Treasurer and Barons of the Exchequer, as it 
was found the Crown would thus have greater security for the rent, 
and the power of disposing of the wardship of the heir, if a minor, 
his request was complied with. A further application was made 
in 1306 by Sir William le Deveneis, who had meantime been 
appointed a judge, for privileges exei'cised by Christiana de Marisco 
and her ancestors of seizing wreck from the sea, and escheats found 
on the rocks, and also for the ownership of pools which possibly 
were artificially constructed fish ponds, on the coast from Black- 
rock to the river Dodder. But the jury to whom the question was 
referred expressed the opinion that only such persons as were 
licensed by Christiana de Marisco and her ancestors should of right 
enjoy these privileges, and said that as yet they had seen no pools. 
During Sir John Cruise's ownership of Merrion and Thorncastle, 
the latter manor suffered so much from the incursions of the 
inhabitants of the Wicklow mountains that he was allowed bv the 



BOOTERSTOWN AND THE BLACKROCK ROAD. ^3 

Crowu to hold it rent free for his life, but in James Fitzwilliam's 
time it was liable to a head rent of £5 8s. 8d., whieli in 1409 was 
assigned by the King to William de Marny and his son John, and 
in 1418 to John Coringham, Clerk of the Works and guardian of 
the King's Palace in Dublin Q-). 

The modern Booterstown occupies the site of the village in which 
the tenants on Thorncastle resided in the fifteenth century. After 
James Fitzwilliam's son, Philip, had succeeded to the property, 
during a severe incursion from the Irish enemies of the King, 
this village was completely destroyed and the tenants killed. A 
remission of rent from the Crown was then sought by Philip Fitz- 
william, in order not only to rebuild the village but also to ei-ect 
a fortified castle for its defence and that of the surrounding 
country. In his petition, which was lodged in 1435, he points 
out that until the village was rebuilt there would be loss to the 
Crown of the rent as well as to himself of the profits of the lands. 
On condition that the castle was completed witlrin four years, and 
that it was placed under the supervision of the Treasurer of 
Ireland, the jjrayer of liis petition was granted. The building did 
not progress rapidly, and in 1449, when Philip Fitzwilliam was 
given a remission of all arrears of rent and permission to hold rent- 
free for life, it had only been begun. It was, however, subsequently 
completed, and vaults belonging to it are said to be iiicoiporatcd 
in the house which stands upon its site, as indicated on the Ordnance 
Map. It is described in the seventeenth century as being in good 
repair, and a garden plot and grove of ash trees " set for ornament, 
then surrduiided it (-). 

The lands of Booterstown werc> amongst the pidpiTty mortgaged 
by the first Viscount Fitzwilliam, and were assigned to Sir William 
Ryves, then Attorney-General for Ireland. The latter, with his 
brother, an ecclesiastical lawyer of note, had been Ijiought from 
England by the well-known Sir Jnhn Davis, to wliom he was 
related, and after a long tenure of the Attorney-Generalship, during 
wliich he represented in Parliament for some years the borough of 
Belturbet, he was ajjpoiiited a Justice of tho King's Bcmu'Ii an 
office which he held until his death in 1G16 and acted fur a time 



(') Christ (•liiitcli Deeds, So. l!l(» ; HIacker'H Skefeiies, p. Kili ; Plea KoIIs ; 
.Sweetman's Calenilar, IL'.")--' I'MH : l'iit<tit Rolls, pp. lad, ]!)(>, 21'_'; also see for 
an nifeiiipt <o reconcile (lie ancient anrj modern pLiri' n.Miic^^, ;i p.ijur !i\ Mr\ I'. 
J. C)"Kcilly, Joitraul, U.S.A./., vol. .\.\.\ii., p. ITS. 

i'^) Journal, U.S.A. I., vol. .\-\x., p. :>1(», note; .Mcmorand i Kolls; Fleet \)Oorl'3 
Survey. 



24 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, &C. 

in the high position of Speaker of the House of Loi'ds. It was 
before him that Mr. Wolverston, of Stillorgan, was brought for 
examination in connection with the murder of Mr. Smithson ; and 
he was on terms of intimacy with the Earl of Cork, his first loan 
to Viscount Fitzwilliam being made on the same day as one from 
his noble friend (i). 

The principal resident in Booterstown at the time of the Rebellion 
of 1641 was Mr. Thomas Fox, a gentleman farmer. In December 
of that year his stock was driven off by a party of the rebels, headed, 
as he alleged, by the Goodmans of Lough linstown and the Roch- 
forts of Kilbogget, and owing to the state of the country he was 
unable to pursue his avocation. In his deposition he set forth that 
he had lost 60 cows of English breed, valued at £360; and 15 
horses, valued at £60 ; besides brass, pewter and other household 
stuff, and that the yearly profit from his farm was £100, and the 
value of the buildings and improvements £1,000. Subsequently, 
as appears from a deposition made in 1646, Fox was murdered near 
his own house. About the time of the Restoration the jjoj^ulation 
of Booterstown was returned as 41 persons of Irish descent, 
inhabiting nine houses. With the exception of one occupied by 
Thomas Reyley, which had two chimneys, and another occupied by 
the smith, to which a forge was attached, these had only one fire- 
place each C-^). 

In the beginning of the eighteenth century Mr. Richard Colley, 
who afterwards assumed the name of Wesley, and was created 
Lord Mornington, the grandfather of the great Duke of Wellington, 
had a small residence at Booterstown, which on succeeding to the 
Wesley property he assigned to Mr. Christopher Ussher, his first 
cousin, already mentioned as tenant under Christ Church Cathedral 
for the lands of Ti^operstown. Mrs. Delany, who much admired 
the situation of Booterstown, describes a collation with every 
variety of wine, and the best of sillibub, of which she par- 
took one afternoon in the spring of 1732 in the Ussher's 
house, and tells how she afterwai'ds went to a dance, which lasted 
until an early hour next morning, at Mr. Wesley's, where she had 
more " peck and booze," as meat and drink were called in the 
fashionable slang of that day. About this time part of the lands of 

(1) Chancery Inquisition, Car. i., No. f)2 ; " Dictionary of National Biography," 
vol. 1., p. 72 ; Pedigree of the Ryves family, by G. T>. Burtchaell in the Irish Builder 
for 1888, p. 130 ; Lismore Papers, Ser. i., vol. i., p. 256, vol. ii., p. 9, vol. iii., pp. 
149, 254 ; Calendar of Carte Papers under date 8th Jan., 1669 ; Deposition of 1641 
(Josiah Bishop, servant of Judge Ryves). 

(-) Depositions of 1641 (Thomas Fox of Booterstown and John Higginson of 
Rathfarnham) ; Census of 1659 ; Hearth Money Roll. 



BOOTERSTOWX AND THE BLACKKOCK UOAD. 



25 



Booterstowu were cultivated by a farmer called Isaiah Ycatcs, who 
grow corn of such superlative excellence that in two successive years 
a premium for the best wheat given by the Dublin Society — a 
body then in its infancy — was paid down on the nail to him, and 
in one of those years he sold in the public market 400 barrels of 
his wheat for 20.v. a barrel, whrn the ordinary su])ply fetched from 
Us. to 18.S-. (1). 

The middle of the eighteenth century saw the transition of the 
neighbourhood from an agricultural to a residential locality. 
Bishop Pococke, the great traveller, mentions that in 1752 Lord 
Fitzwilliam was letting the lands of Booterstowu in small parcels 




Entrance to St. Helen's. 

From a Photograph hij F. I'. Darn/. 



for buildim,'' country houses. Bishop Pococke considei'i'd Hooters- 
t(jwn to lia\c a most glorious situation. It was at this time ihai 
Merrion Avenue which leads from Blackrock to the gates of Mount 
Merrion on the Stillorgan Road, and is unequalled in I he metro- 
polilaii county foi- no])li' |)ro|i(iil ion and Hiir tinilxT, and Cross 
Avenue, which (ounecls IJooleistown with .Men-i<in Avenue, were 
constructed. 

St. Helen's, formerly called Seanioiml, now the handsome resi- 
dence of Sir .lohn .X'utling, liaroiiel, was one of the lir^l, hoiuses 

(•) "Aiitobiograj)li\ aii<l CorrcHponclcnoi- oi Alais (wanvillc. Airs. Ddany, " Mil. i., 
p. 34r>; I'.l.ukcr'H .Sk'ctclK'K, pp. ]<)•_', JO!). 



26 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, &C. 

erected. It was built by Mr. Thomas Cooley, a popular barrister, 
and representative in Parliament for the borough of Duleek, who 
died in 1754, when the house was only a. few years completed. In 
the nineteenth century it had several distinguished occupants, 
including the Right Hon. John Doherty, Chief Justice of the 
Common Pleas, and General Lord Viscount Gough. Sans Souci, 
the fine old residence of Mr. Joseph P. O'Reilly, D.L., was erected 
about the same time by the Lanesborough family, and was originally 
approached by the noble gateway in rustic work, which now forms 
the entrance of St. Helen's. The grounds of Sans Souci wei'e laid 
out by a landscape gardener called Gabriel Griffin, who in 1769 
mentioned a shrubbery and a wall for fruit trees, which he had 
constructed there, as proof of his capabilities. To Sans Souci, 
in 1781, Robert, third Earl of Lanesborough, brought his bridei — a 
daughter of the Right Hon. David La Touche — the greatest beauty 
of her time, and there in 1806, having lived for many years in 
seclusion, owing to grief for her untimely decease, he died. Sub- 
sequently Sans Souci was occupied by Mr. James Digges La Touche, 
a man of singular piety (i). 

Amongst other residents in Booterstown we find John, first Baron 
Knapton, ancestor of Viscount de Vesci, who was living there in 
1746; Lady Anne Doyne, widow of Mr. Philip Doyne, of Wells, 
and a daughter of the first Earl of Arran, whose house at Booters- 
town was sold in 1766; the Venerable Edward Wight, Archdeacon 
of Limerick, who was placed in 1771 on the Commission of the 
Peace for the County Dublin when living at Villa Wight, near 
Booterstown ; the Countess of Brandon, a peeress in her own right, 
admired for " genuine wit, elegance of taste, dignity of manners, 
and superior understanding," who died in 1789 in her house in 
Booterstown Avenue; Sir Samuel Bradstreet, a Baronet, Recorder 
of Dublin, and subsequently a Justice of the King's Bench, who 
entertained the Lord Lieutenant and a distinguished party in 1788 
at his villa near Booterstown ; the Earl of Roscommon, who was 
living at Booterstown in 1804 ; and the Right Hon. James Fitz- 
gerald, the silver-tongued Prime Serjeant, well known for his part 
in the Union debates, who died in 1835 at Cherbury (2). 



(1) " Pocockps' Irish Tour," edited by Professor G. T. Stokes, p. 163 ; Slacker's 
Sketches, pp. 29, 195, 201, 237, 247, 414; Universal Adrertiser, No. 124; Pue's 
Occurrences, vol. Ixvi., No. 6822 ; Leases in Kegistry of Deeds ; Will of Thomas 
Cooley ; Gilbert's " History of Dublin," vol. i., p. 24. 

{-) Pue\s Occurrences, vol. liv., N^o. 102, vol. Ixiii., No. 6474, vol. I.xviii., No. 
7025; Blacker's Sketches, pp. 95, 178, 181, 193, 241. 



BOOTERSTOWN AND THE BLACKROCK ROAD. 27 

The Blackrock Road was during part of the eighteenth century 
in a dangerous state, and had an unenviable reputation as the 
resort of highwaymen. Owing to the absence of a protecting wall 
the Rev. Thomas Heauy, soon after his appointment as Curate of 
Monkstown, nari-owly escaped meeting his death owing to his horse 
backing his gig over a precipice at the edge of the road near 
Booterstown. and the Hon. Colonel Loftus' coachman, when pro- 
ceeding home to Killiney, was attacked near there by no less than 
four footpads. About 1781 horse races, which were held near 
Booterstown, were a source of annoyance to the inhabitants, and 
in that year they were stopped by the Lord Mayor of Dublin, who 
sent the Sheriffs, " with a projoer guard," to take down the tents 
and to prevent the horses running (i). 

The popularity of Blackrock led to the erection of many villas 
between Booterstown and that place. Amongst these was Willow 
Park, which at the time of the Union was the residence of Hugh 
Viscount Carleton, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, 
already mentioned in connection wjth Brenanstown, and after- 
wards of the first Viscount Mountmorres. Williamstown, a small 
group of houses, principally known through its occupation by the 
French College, assumed its present appearance about 1780 under 
the improving hand of Counsellor William Vavasour, whose name 
is still preserved ni the Beggar's Bush district. One of the houses 
occupied by the French College, originally called Castle Dawson, 
was then the residence of the Hon. James Massy Dawson, second 
son of the fii"st Baron Massy, whose descendants, until lately, con- 
tinued to own it; and at the time of the Rebellion of 1798, when 
the inhabitants of Williamstown displayed great loyalty, Lieu- 
tenant-General James Stewart, to whose memory there is a tablet 
in Monkstown Church, was a resident (-). 



(') Pxies Occurrences, vol. .\1., No. 52, vol. Ixiii., No. (J54-1 ; Newspaper Cuttings 
relating to Ireland in the Britiwh Mu.seuiii. 

(2) Brewer's " Beauties of Ireland,' vol. i., p. IHT ; Lease in Registry of Deeds 
OfTiee ; Blaeker'.s .Sketelies, pp. 84, S.l, 1,S7, !!••_', iMo. 4:}1. 474 ; Post Chaise Com- 
panion ; Burke's " Landed (gentry," under Massy Daw-on of New Forest. 

The Viscounts Moimtinorres are l)iiried in .Monkstown graveyard, and there is 
in .Monkstown Cliureh a mural tablet to Lieutenant-tieneral Stewart hearing tiie 
following inscrijjtion : — " Inscrihed to the memory of J,ieii(.-(Jeneral .lames Stewart, 
late Lt.-Col. of His ISIajesty's rjth or Royal Irish Begim<ni i>\ Dragoons, who de- 
parted this life in Dublin 1st May, 1798, aged 58 years, luuch beloved and lamented 
by -Miss Jane Stewart his Ijeloved danghter. This niotuimeiit is erected by Major 
Ma.xwell of the- 7th Dragoon (iuards, the nephew and late aide-ile-eanij) to the 
Ciencrral, in token of their love and regard "' 



28 



PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, (tc. 



Near Merrion Avenue, on what was then part of the lands of 
Booterstown, three villas worthy of notice were erected in the latter 
half of the eighteenth centuiy. These were known as Lisaniskea, 
Fort Lisle, and Frescati. Lisaniskea, which is still to be seen, was 
the home of Lady Arabella Denny, widow of Mr. Arthur Denny, 
j\LP. for the County Kerry, and daughter of the first Earl of 
Kerry, the foundress of the Magdalen Asylum in Leeson Street. 
She has been described as a most agi-eeable and extraordinary 
woman, and spent her means in the alleviation of distress and 
suffering. At Lisaniskea her nephew, the Earl of Shelburne, 
sometimes sought repose from the cares of State, and there a few 
years before the close of her long life, Lady Arabella Denny was 




View of Vauxhall Gardens, Blackrock. 

From a Plate in " The Sentimental and Masonic Magazine^ 

visited in 1783 by John Wesley, who speaks of Lisaniskea as an 
earthly paradise (}). Fort Lisle, which stood where the upper bank 
of the People's Park now lies, was then the residence of John, first 
Lord Lisle, whose penurious habits gave great opportunity to the 
satirists of his time. After his death in 1781 the house was 
occupied by his widow, whose brother. Admiral Matthew Moore, 
died in 1787 at Blackrock, ordering his body to be interred at low- 
water mark in the strand, and by his son-in-law, Mr. John Travers. 



(1) Slacker's Sketches, pp. 171, 231 ; Lansdowne Papers, British Museum 
Add. MS., 24,137, vol. i., f. 118; " Essays from the Batchelor, by Jeoffrey 
Wagstaffe," p. 191. 



BOOTERSTOWN SIMMONSCOURT. 129 



III 1793 the house and grounds were turned into a place of public 
recreation under the name of Vauxhall Gardens, which were said, 
in the Language of that period, to have crowned " the fasci- 
nating vicinity of Blackrock with a resistless charm " (i). Frescati, 
which remains, but in an altered form, was built as the seaside 
residence of the Leinster family, and was said to be one of the 
best mansions in Ireland. There Lord Edwai'd FitzGerald 
exercised his taste for horticulture, there the Dowasfcr Duchess of 
Leinster gave splendid entertainments, and there, amongst tem- 
porary residents, we find Sir Henry Cavendish, who, while a 
member of the English House of Commons, reported for his amuse- 
ment the speeches made during an entire Parliament, and his wife, 
who was created a peeress as Baroness Waterpark (2). 



SIMMONSCOURT. 

SiMMONSCOURT, a district to the north-west (or opposite side to 
Booterstown) of Merrion, forming portion of the populous Pem- 
broke Township, exhibits as the only relic of its ancient state a 
fragment of a fortified building in the grounds of the modern 
Simmonscourt Castle. The ruins were in the eighteenth century 
much more considerable, and when visited by Austin Cooper in 
17S0 a staircase of 38 steps was intact (3). 

During the davs of invasion bv the Black Danes and their 
Scottish allies, the lands within the confines of Simmonscourt were 
the scene of a fearful massacre. This was proved by the discovery, 
more than twenty years ago, on the southern side of the modern 
Ailesburv Road, near Seaview Terrace, of a vast cjuantity of 
human remains which the late Dr. William Frazer, in an exhaustive 
paper read before the Royal Irish Academy, di-scribes at length. 
Those slain included men. women, and childnMi to the number of 
six hundred persons, and fiom the condition of the remains Dr. 
Frazer was of opinion that they had been killed in cold blood. ;\]]d 
not in battle. Only one of the invaders, a chief, who was found 
buried apart, with a Danish sword by his side, and two women at 



(M Blackcr's Sketches, pp. 81, 17:5, I'M); " Kssays trnm the Hatelteior. hv 
Jeoffrey Wag.-^taffe," pp. 21, -20, 13(», 1S4. 

('^) Biackcr's Sketches, pp. ]<.)'.], 104 ; Moore's "Life of I-ord Kilwanl Kit/.j;eral(l," 
vol. i., pp. 220-239; " Dictioiiaiy of Xutioiial Hii)L'nii)hy," vo!. ix., p. .'Ms. 

(•■') Crose's " Antifjiiities r)f Ireland." vol. i., p. 21 ; " 'I'lic Les.-cr Castles of 
the County Dublin," l.y K. It. M'C. Dix in 7'At hi.sh lUiilda; for l>S!t7, p. (io ; 
(/Ooper'tf Note Book. 



30 



PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, &C. 



his feet, appears to have fallen, his death being due to a sword 
wound on his head. Dr. Frazer conjectured that the remains 
were those of inhabitants of the coast who had fled before the fierce 
invaders by a road which led from Merrion to the ford at Donny- 
brook, and that, possibly stopped by floods, they had been over- 
taken, and, after making feeble resistance, had been ruthlessly 
slaughtered (i). 




■.■'«^> 



Simmonscourt Castle in 1792. 

From an En<jr<tving in Grose s " Antiquities 0/ Ireland." 

The lands of Simmonscourt, as originally constituted in the thir- 
teenth century, divided the lands of Merrion from those of Donny- 
brook and Baggotrath, and were described as a carucate of land in 
Donnybrook near the highway from Dublin to Thorncastle, 
extending from the Dodder Bridge to the meadow of Merrion. The 
lands then belonged, like those of Merrion and Booterstown, to 
Walter de Rideleford, and by him they were granted in 1238 to 
Frambald FitzBoydekyn, who is described as a resident on the de 
Ridelefords' property in the County Kildare. Twenty years later 
John Frambald, son of the original lessee, conveyed the lands at 
the rent of a pair of gloves to Richard de St. Olof, a citizen of 
Dublin, and from the latter they passed, through the marriage of 

(M Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Polite Literature, Second Series, 
vol. ii., p. 29. 



SIMMONSCOURT. 31 



liis daughter, Margery to one of the house, into the possession of 
a family called Morville. In their time a charge was executed on 
the lands in favour of Thomas Bagod, then the owner of Merrion, 
and later on his successor in Merrion, Sir John Cruise, exercised 

some right over them. 

'■^ 

The name Simmonscourt, or, as it was formerly spelled, Smothcs- 
court, is dei'ived from a family called Smothe, who appear in the 
fourteenth century as the successors of the Morvilles. There wei'e 
two owners, father and son, called Thomas Smothe, and the lands 
afterwards passed through the hands of several other persons. Wo 
find amongst those dealing with them, in 1379, John Mynagh, a 
chaplain; in 1382 Robert Serjeant; in 1386 Roger Kilmore, who 
leased to three carpenters his lands in Donnybrook, excepting a 
little park, a dovecote, and an acre of meadow ; and in 1391 John 
Drake, who was Mayor of Dublin, and displayed during his tenn of 
office gi'eat valour as leader of an expedition against the Irish 
enemies of the King in the wilds of the Wicklow ilills. By John 
I>rake the lands were assigned, on condition that prayers should be 
offered for himself and his relations, to the Priory of the Holy 
Trinity, and from that time until the nineteenth century the lands 
remained ecclesiastical property, and were held under the Priory 
and its successor, the Cathedral of Christ Church, by the Fitz- 
williams of Merrion (i). 

Places for public amusements stood upon the lands; and in a 
sixteenth century lease to the Fitzwilliams, the keeping and profits 
of the courts are reserved to the landlords. On Easter Monday, or 
Black Monday, as it was called on account of llie dreadful slaughter 
of the citizens which had taken place on that day at Cullenswood, 
the Dean of Christ Church Cathedral and his servants came to 
Simmonscoui'l for an animal outing ami the tenant was bound to 
receive them in the chief house, occupied about that time by one 
Gerald Long, described as a gentleman, and to extend hospitality 
to them. A ral)bit warren planted with ash and as])en trees is 
mentioned in the lease, and also a dovecote, which the tenant was 
bound to stock with pigeons, and of which the landlords, who were 
to share the stock with the tenant, were to have a key. With the 
lands of Simmonscourt were held lands called Colcot, which had 
been released in 1336 by Sir Elias Aslibourne to Thomas Smothe (-). 



(') Christ Chiii'h Deeds iiniler Doimvbidok jind SiiniiU)tiscf)iir( ; IU,i(l<ei's 
Sketches, j). liiiii ; " Ohit.saini .Marlynihigy ot (.'hiist (.'liureh." 

(^) Cliiist Chiinli Deeds. . ...... ^ 



32 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK. &C. 



A bridge across the Dodder known as the bridge of Simmons- 
court existed in the beginning of the seventeenth century, but was 
much out of repair in 1640, when the sum of £10 was voted by the 
Corporation of Dublin for its restoration. At the time of the 
rebellion of 1641 the lands of Simmonscourt, then occupied by 
George Hill, were spoiled and laid waste by, as was alleged, de- 
pendants and tenants of Viscount Fitzwilliam. The widow of 
George Hill, who appears to have lost his life in the hardship of 
those times, deposed that thirty cows of English breed, seven 
heifers, and eight horses, besides a quantity of corn, had been 
carried off, and that some of the cattle were taken to Kilternan 
and there killed on lands owned by Viscount Fitzwilliam. During 
the Commonwealth the lands of Sinimonscourt, which were 
returned as occupied by seven English and fifteen Irish inhabi- 
tants, were held by a Mr. John Weaver. After the Restoration 
the Earl of Tyrconnel's brother and successor, William Fitz- 
william, resided in the castle, which had four chimneys, the only 
other householders being one Thomas Parker, a^ j^oor widow, and 
James the carman. At the close of the seventeenth century the 
Castle of Simmonscourt was in ruin, and the lands were held 
under Christ Church by the Mossoms, already mentioned as tenants 
under the Cathedral for Tipperstown (i). 

The beginning of the eighteenth century saw a house at Simmons- 
court, which was the residence at the time of his death, in 1734, of 
Arthur Forbes, second Earl of Granard, the father of the distin- 
guished naval commander and diplomatist, who succeeded him in 
the title as third Earl, and which possibly had been previously 
occuj^ied by Mr. Samuel Adams, who in 1720 was placed on the 
Commission of the Peace for the County Dublin, and was described 
as of Simmonscourt. Subsequently the Honble. Richard Mountney, 
one of the Barons of the Exchequer, had a house there. In 1791 a 
bridge of three arches was erected across the Dodder on the site of 
the present Ball's Bridge, and known by that name ; it was re- 
placed in 1835 by the existing structure. Towards the close of the 
eighteenth century Counsellor Whittingham and Mr. Trulock are 
mentioned as the chief residents at Simmonscourt (2). 



(I) Gilbert's "Ancient Records of Dublin," vol. iii., p. 372; Depositions of 
1641 (Mary Hill of Simmonscourt); Poll Tax Return; Crown Rental Roll; 
Blacker's Sketche.?, p. 40.5. 

(-) Dublin Week!// Journal for 1734, pp. 112, ll(j, 140; Pue\s Occurrences, vol. 
xxxi., No. 55 ; Magistrates' Warrants in Public Record Oflice : Blacker's Sketche,*, 
pp. 82, 95. 192, 408; M'Cready's " Street Names of Dublin " ; Post Chaise Com- 
panion; Dublin Journal, May 7-H, 1745. 



S AND YMO U N T— R IN G SEN D . 



SAN D YMOUNT. 

The land, on which the suburb of Sandvmount stands, lyini^ 
between Simmonscourt and the sea, was in the sixteenth century 
a i-abbit warren called the Scallct Hill, which was covered with 
furze. It had belonged to Richard dc St. Olof, the original 
owner of Simmonscourt. and after passing thrnugh \\\c hands of 
the owners of Baggotrath. the Bagods, and the Fitzwilliains. it 
came, at the same time as Simmonscourt. into the possession of the 
Priory of the TToly Trinity. Subsequently this area, together with 
the land along the shore, now covered by Strand Road and Sidney 
Parade, and then described as the great pasture by the sea, or the 
rabbit warren, became the property of the Fitzwilliains of INlerrion. 
The blind rabbit warren and the niaish near Simmonscourt 
are at the same time mentioned, and in the seventeenth century 
the upper and lower marsh are referred to, as well as places in the 
neighbourhood known then as the court of the sallies, the ridge 
of the brambles, the little field, and the furze park. A herring 
fishery occupied the shore from ]\Ierrion to Ringsend, and from it 
the Fitzwilliams received a toll of 500 choice herrings. During 
the early part of the eighteenth century the soil was f<nind suitable 
for the manufacture of bricks, and the sea border from IMerrion to 
where Sandymount now lies, was occupied by what were known as 
Lord Merrion's brickfields. A village called Brickfield Town sprang 
up. and not far from it. by the sea. there was a pretty thatched inn 
called the Conniving House, kept by one Johnny ISIacklean, 
renowned for its fish dinners and excellent ale. These at the close 
of the eighteenth century gave place to the modern Sandymount, 
which has now become almost merged in the metropolis (i). 



RINGSEND. 



RiNCSEND, or the end of the point, came into notice in th. se\eii 
teenth century as a landing place for passengers buund tm- Duliliii. 
As has been already related, Dalkey was from the time df tlu^ 
Anglo-Norman conquest until the sixteenth eeniuiy tin pmt of 
the metropolis for merchandise as well as jiassengers, bnt with the 
increasing traffic of the Elizabethan lurmd llir Dublin merchants 



(1) Christ Church Deeds; Jilackor's Sketches, |)|i. 71. ls<>. 40(). 



34 



PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, &C. 







C 










c 
in 



EINGSEND. 35 



found it more conveniont, notwithstanding the dillicullies and 
delay attendant on the navigation of the LifFey, to discharge their 
ships near their places of business. Witli the merchandise came the 
passengers, for vessels then servt'd alike lnr Ixith |)ur])oses. and as 
the ships had often to lie for days at anchor close to Ringsend before 
the tide permitted of their coming up the river, it I)ecame the cus- 
tom to ]Mii passengers on shore and to take them on l)oaf(_l at. 
Ringsend. Although exigencies of weather and convenience caused 
Dunleary. Howth, and Skerries to be occasionally used, Ringsend 
was, from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century, when the con- 
struction of Ilowth Harbour and Kingstown llarlxnir caused 
another diversicm, the I'hief place of embarkation and disen\l)arka- 
tiou for passenger traihc. 

1 

The increasing traffic to Dublin in tlie reign of Queen Elizabeth 
led the Corporation in the year 158'J to take steps f(n- the erection 
of a fort at Ringsend, in order to secure the dues which they 
charged ships using the port. In the reign of James I. violations 
of the revenue laws had become so frequent, owing to the distance 
of the Custom TTouse, then situated on Merchants' Quay, from 
Ringsend, that it was decided in 1620, (m the advice of a customs 
oflTicer called Thomas Cave, to station a revenue surveyor per- 
manently at Ringsend. A house was 1)uilt thei'e for his accom- 
modation, and as a reward for his assiduity in this and other busi- 
ness, Thomas Cave became its first occupant. The numl)er of 
ships which lay near Ringsend, even in the early part of the 
seventeenth century, may be estimated from the fact, that duiing a 
great stoi-m in tlie winter of 1(537, in one night, no less than ten 
bai-ques '" of the most part whereof never no news hath been heard 
since" were candied away from their anchorage tluic. Needless 
to say, Ringsend soon became a busy village. At the time thei 
surveyor's house was built so worthless was the land considered that 
the penniss'ion of the: hn-d of the soil was not obtained before^ its 
erc-etion. and it was not foi- some years that Viscount Fit/.william 
made an application foi- compensation, l)ut when liie Restoration 
camo Ringsend had a ])o]niIa1ion of TiO ])ei-sons of Knglish and HI 
persons of Irish descent, and the adjoining viUage of Irishtowii one 
of 23 persons of Knglisli and 75 persons of Irish descent (i). 



(>) (Jilljcrt's "Ancient IJ.-.-onl, (,t I iiiMiti." vol. ii., p. HIS; ('alcti.l.ii <.t l^l-^ll 
Stat*- Papcrrt, 11)15 -Ki'i"), |i|,. ;jo(», :t:57 ; Kili.; ItiijL', ]>. Wl ; lU.ickrr s Sk.lclii's, 
p. ■10-J ; Koll Tax M<tiirri. 



I) 2 



36 



PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, itc. 



At the time of the establishment of the Commonwealth, Rings- 
end was almost surrounded with water, which spread mi its 
western side over the low orouiid between Irishtowu and Begf^ar's 
Bush, at that time a. wood, and a great resort of robbers. It could 
only be approached from Dublin at low tide by means of a ford 
across the Dodder, but a bridge w^as then constructed across that 
river and measures were taken to keep the water within its channel. 




Beggar's Bush in 1802. 

From a Flale.Jn " The Littranj and Masonic Magazine." 

This bridge was afterwards demolished, as the erratic John Dunton 
tells us in connection with a ramble he took to " that dear place," 
Ringsend. and in order to cross the river it was necessary to em- 
ploy vehicles known as Ringsend cars — the predecessors of those 
described under the history of Blackroek — which consisted of a seat 
susjDended on a leather strap between two shafts, and were remark- 
able for the creaking which the leather made. Shortly after the 
Restoration in 1665, while the Earl of Ossory was aeting as Lord 
Deputy for his father, the Duke of Ormonde, races for these cars 
were held on the strand, and in presence of 5,000 spectators twenty- 
five of them competed for prizes offered by the Lord Deputy (i). 

Of the great historical events of the seventeenth century Rings- 
end saw its share. From it set out for England in 1614 Lord 



(M Haliclav'.s '• Scandinavian Kingdom of Dublin," p. 234; Blacker's Sketches, 
pp. 57, 67, 403 ; Fiant Elizabeth No. 2341. 



RINGSEND. 37 



Deputy Chichester, and to it rode in 1G26 Robert, first Earl of 
Westnieath, erstwhile rebel but then a i-oyal favourite, to fuibark 
for the English Court. There landed in 1646 the soldiers who 
accompanied the Commissioners sent by the Parliament to treat 
with the Duke of Ormonde, then holding Dublin for the inval 
cause, and there and in the neighbouring villages of Laicai' II ill and 
Baggotrath they remained in neutral quarters until on tlu' unsuc- 
cessful termination of the negotiations they re-embarked for the 
North of Ireland. In Riiigsend in 1648 was statimied a coinpaiiy 
of the Parliament army, including Lieutenant-Colonel Philij) 
Fernelev, Lieutenant Francis Tour, Ensign Robert Walsh, seven 
non-commissioned officers, and sixty-eight privates, and there in the 
following year, before the Battle of Rathmines, a detachment of 
royal soldiers from the Duke of Ormonde's camp at Finglas defeated 
the garrison. At its port later in the year 1649 landed Oliver 
Cromwell with his conquering army, and to it came in IGoT), lowed 
up in boats from Dunleary, where the men-of-war lay, Henry Crom- 
well and his retinue on his arrival to assume the Chief Covciiior- 
ship of Ireland. There after the Restoration in 1670 landed Ldid 
Berkeley on his appointment as Viceroy, and in 1671 waited fof 
a favourable wind to cross to England some officers of the liisii 
Guards ordered to answer at court a charge of mutinous conduct. 
Thence escaped in 1683, after lying concealed there for some days 
m a tavern called the King's Head, the famous gang of robbers, 
the Brennans, who are said to have carried off' pioperty to the value 
of £12,000. There arrived in 1689 officers and soldiers of the 
English army to join the standard of James II.. and there- in the 
following year, that monarch on riding down from .Dublin, saw his 
ships driven ashore by a sea force of William 111. undei- the com- 
mand of Sir Cloudesley Shovel. And thence sailed in HiDL 
escorted to the water side bv the Lords Justices and nianv of the 
military and gentry. William lll.'s favourite Ceneral, Codert de 
(';inkel (1;. 

The condition of the port of Dublin, then onlv navigable i)y 
vessels of from fifty to one hundred tons burden, can now hardlv he 
realisc'l At higli tide the watei- sniead o\-ei- a great area, coming 



(J) Calendar of Irish State J*a])crs, Ki-J.') Ki.TJ, p. KM : •' I )i( I ii.n.n \ ut .\ali:>ii.il 
IJiograpliy," vol. xli., j). "ilifi ; Historical .Mamiseiii>ts ( 'niiiiiiissioii. K(|)l. x.. .\|)|i.. 
pt. vi., p. ]()"». Rc|)t. .\ii., App., pt. vi., p. 1H!( ; .Maiiiisciipt in 'I'tinils' ('(ijjrv^c 
bihrary, V. 15, IK; " .\ irrcat \'ictoiy olitaincil iiy the .Maii|iicssc of (>i'iii(iii<l ami 
the bold lri(lii()uc<Ti aj/aiiist, tin' i'aiiiaiiK'iits l"\)iccs," Limdoii, KilH, |)nsri\ cd 
in tlif .Vcailcniy Tracts in Hoyal Irish .Xcaileniy ; ( 'ali'ndarol I )oiiii'stic Statr I'jipcis, 
l()7l HiT"-!, p. '21; Carte Papers, vol. xl., f. 17"; Jilacker's Sketdas, pp. 51) 
(Hi, (',7, (i!). 



38 Parishes of donnybrook, &c. 

up on the south side to the line of Denzille Street, Great Bruns- 
vick Street, Townsend Street, and on one occasion even to Merrion 
Square, and at low tide the Liffey made its way to the sea by 
devious courses through a labyrinth of sands. Near Ringsend the 
ships lay at low water on the hard sand, and were exposed to every 
wind. Much of the merchandise was carried from the ships in 
litters, and the annual expenditure on the conveyance of passengers 
fi'om Ringsend to Dublin was estimated at not less than £500, a 
large amount in those times. The unsatisfactoiy state of the port 
is first shown in 1673 in a survey made by Sir Bernard de Gomme, 
the most famous military engineer of his day, for a great citadel 
vvhich ho proposed should be erected at a cost of some £130,000 on 
ground in the neighbourhood of the modern MeiTion Square, but in 
the following year it is treated of in the most exhaustive manner, 
in a report drawn up at the request of the Lord Mayor, Sir Francis 
Brewster, by Andrew Yarranton, one of the earliest political econo- 
mists and pioneers of inland navigation. The latter proposed as a 
remedy that locks, such as he had seen in Holland, should be con- 
structed at the mouth of the Liflfey, and that cuts or canals, in 
which the ships could float, with warehouses and a military store- 
house on their banks, should be made in the slob land, which then 
lay between Ringsend and Lazar Hill or Townsend Street (i). 

Although attempts were made in 1676 by one Henry Howard, 
and in 1698 by the Corporation of Dublin, to found a ballast office, 
it was not until 1707 that corporate powers for the preservation 
and improvement of the port of the Irish meti'opolis were conferred 
by Act of Parliament. From that time operations for clearing and 
widening the channel were actively carried on. Lighters were 
employed to deepen the bed of the river, the enclosing of the ground 
on the south side of the river was undertaken, and surveys for 
piling below Ringsend to keep the sand within bounds were ordered. 
About the year 1717 the piling, strengthened by a wooden frame- 
work filled with stones, commenced, and was carried on to near the 
site of the Poolbeg lighthouse. The piling and framework soon 
decayed, and the coustructioii of the South Wall, on which the 
Pigeon House stands, was commenced. Before the year 1755 it 
had reached as far as the site of the fort, and before the year 
1796 the extension to the Lighthouse was completed — the successful 



(1) Blacker's Sketches, pp. 148, 187, 335 ; " Dictionary of National Biography," 
vol. xxli., p. 103, vol. Ixiii., p. 284. 



RINGSEND. 



d 



conclusion of the work being largely dno to tlu> indefatigable exer- 
tions of Viscount Ranelagli, to whose prominence in the public 
affairs of his day reference has already been made in connection 
with his residence at ]\Ionksto\vn. At the end of the piles, in 
1735, a vessel with a huitern at her mast head was phiced. and this 
was the only guide for ships entering the port until 17G7, when ihe 
Poolbeg Lighthouse hrst showed its light. That structure was 
commenced in 17(51, and has remained, as a writer of that, period 
predicted, "a lasting testimony (if the al)ility, ikj less in design 



thai 



an in e.\ecnti<m, of the undertaker, ^Ir. Jolm Smith "' (}). 




The; Lighthouse lOn the ;South Wall. 

From a Plate preserved in the British Musevm. 

Ringsend at the beginning of the eighteenth centuiy is desciilnd 
as being a eh an. healthy and Ix'antifnl village, with hmises on the 
walls of which vines were trained ; and iati r <in .Mis. |)(lany speaks 
of llingsond. wiiere she went tn liny shells U^v lui- gnitln, in emi 
ncction with a description of the cnviitins (jf Dublin whicli aioused 
iier admiration. it was tluii iiiliahiled, in addition to seamen, by 
officials belonging lo thr port ol' Dnhhn, and to|- thnr convcnK iice, 
as the Pai-isli ('liiiich of l)onnvbi-ooU was often inaccessibh' owing 
to Hoods caused bv lain and liiLjIi tides, the Uoyal ('ha|ii'l of St. 
.M;iitlicw, coiiiiiioiiK' known as liishtown ('linich, was eie<'ted, in 



(') l',liukci"s Sk<!lclicH. pp. -'I. r>:{. .VI. 71. 71. 7'.i. 17s. Isl, (os, .||r,, ii'O; 
ll.ili'liiy'rt " ScuiKliniivi.in Kiiii'-Imiii .,t Diil.liii." pp. •_' 1 1 •_'17. 



40 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, &C. 



what was then an adjacent village. The shore near Ringsend was 
famous for shrimps and cockles, and there was also an oyster bed, 
the produce of which could be partaken of in their purity at the 
sign of " the Good Woman," and these good things, as well as 
horse races and sea-bathing, made the place a favourite outlet for 
the citizens of Dublin. As the port improved the Lords Lieutenants 
usually embarked and disembarked at Lazar Hill ov George's Quay, 
but occasionally they did so at Ringsend. Thus we find landing 
therein 1709 Thomas, Earl of Wharton; in 1737, William, Duke 
of Devonshire; in 1761, George, Earl of Halifax; in 1763, Hugh. 
Earl of Northumberland, who spent some hours in the Surveyor's 
House before proceeding to Dublin, and ordered £10 to be dis- 
tributed amongst the poor of Ringsend; and in 1765, Francis, Earl 
of Hertford (i). 

Towards llie close of the eighteenth century Ringsend is said to 
have been in a very melancholy condition and to have resembled 
a town which had experienced all the calamities of war. Over- 
whelming floods from the mountains had descended upon it, and as 
they had carried away the bridge over the Dodder which had been 
rebuilt in 1727, the inhabitants were cut off from direct communica- 
tion with Dublin except by means of a narrow and dangerous 
wooden structure. A drawing of this temjjorary erection made by 
a contemporary of Francis Grose, John James Barralet, is here 
reproduced. It has been pronounced to have artistic merit, and 
a critic has said that there is considerable vitality if no very literal 
truth in the figures which enliven it. A new stone bridge described 
as of handsome design was afterwards in 1789 erected at the small 
cost of £815, a misplaced economy, to which was due, doubtless, its 
destruction in tuni in 1802 by another disastrous inundation (-). 

After the construction of the South Wall, or Pigeon House Road, 
vessels began to start from the point where the- Pigeon House 
stands. This building, now the Electric Lighting Station of the 
Coi-poration of Dublin, and until recently a fort and military 
barracks, derives its name from a wooden house which was built 
early in the eighteenth century on the piles near its site. This 



(1) "Autobiography and Correspondence of Marv Granville, Mrs. Delanv," 
vol. iii., p. 95; Blacker's Sketches, pp. 70, 74, 79, Ufi, HiO, 412, 41(i. 417, 423. 

(•^) Blacker's Sketches, pp. 81, 87, 427 ; " Dictionary of National Biography," 
vol. iii., p. 273. 



RINGSEND. 



41 




=0 



«5 






1) a. 

c ~ 






5^ 



L 



42 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK &C. 

house was called Pidgeon's House from its occupation by a watcli- 
inan of the name of Pidgeon, and became a well known place of 
resort for boating parties from Dublin. To his ordinary occupa- 
tion Pidgeon added the supply of refreshments to such as visited his 
sea retreat, and so many came that he eventually set up a boat 
himself for the conveyance of his customer's to and from the shore. 
When the piles were superseded by the South Wall a stone 
dwelling, at first known as the Block House, took the place of 
Pidgeon's abode, and the Lords Justices, with the Lord Mayor of 
Dublin and the Directors of the Ballast Office, on making, in 1764, 
an inspection of the works, partook there of a cold repast. Subse- 
quently the Block House, reverting to the older name under the 
corrupted form Pigeon House, became the famous starting j)lace 
for the English packet boats, which has been immortalised in the 
works of Lever and other writers of fiction, and from it the sea^ 
tossed passengers, after escaping from the revenue ofiicers, or the 
plucking of the Pigeon House, as it was called, were conveyed to 
town in a vehicle known as a Long Coach, the discomfort of which 
has been pathetically described by one who^ endured it (i). 



BAGGOTR ATH. 



Where Upper Baggot Street now stands was to be seen in the early 
part of the nineteenth century the ruins of a mediaeval castle, the 
chief residence of the manor of Baggotrath — a manor which in- 
cluded, as already mentioned under the history of Merrion, not only 
a gi-eat portion of the lands forming the Pembroke Township, but 
also those on which Merrion Square, Fitzwilliam Square, and the 
adjoining streets are built. 

These lands, like those of Merrion, lay within the liberties of the 
citizens of Dublin. They extended in the thirteenth century on 
the west to the lands of the Convent of St. Mary de Hogges, now 
College Green, on the north to the Steyne, or bank of the Liffey, on 
the east to the Dodder, which separated them from the lands of 
Richard de St. Olof, now known as Simmonscourt, and on the 



(1) Blacker'.s Sketches, pp. 80,87, 94, 178, 'iH5, U5 ; lJubUn Peniin Juunud, 
vol. ii., p. 99, vol. iii., p. 281. 



BAGGOTRATH. 43 



soutli to tlie lands of the See of Dublin, now known as Cullens- 
wood, and to the citizen's common pasture, called the green of St. 
Stephen. Soon after the Anglo-Norman invasion, Baggotrath, then 
known as the Rath near Donnybrook, was gi'anted by the Crown to 
TheobaUl Waltei-, the first chief butler, ancestor of the Ormonde 
family, but in the succeeding century it was held by tenants, whose 
title was derived from the Corporation of Dublin. The lirst of 
these were Ralph de IMora and William de Flamstead, and they 
were succeeded in 1255 by no less a person than ^Taurice Fitzgerald, 
afterwards Justiciary or Viceroy of Ireland, an ancestor of (he 
Leinster family. From ]Maurice FitzGei'ald, who was under a 
covenant not to build a village, which might burden the coinmon 
lands of the citizens, the lands passed to Philip de Ilyndeberge, 
whose grandson, Nicholas de Hyndeberge, conveyed them in 1280 
to the faniily from which the district takes its name. 

The first of the house of Bagod to occupy them appears to have 
been Sir Robert Bagod, Chief Justice of " the Bench " in Ireland. 
He was a man of activity and ability, and, as his friend, the Bishop 
of Bath and Wells, testified, of devoted loyalty to the Crown, lie 
was succeeded successively in the possession of Baggotrath by his 
son, who bore the same Christian name, and was also a Knight and 
Justice of " the Bench "' ; by his grandson, Hervey Bagod, Arch- 
deacon of Glendalough, and by his great grandson, William, son of 
Sir William Bagod. In the deed of conveyance to Sir Robert 
Bagod no castle is mentioned as standing in the Manor of the Rath, 
which is described as consisting of three carucates ajid fin-ty acres 
of land, with a site for a mill and a mill-race fed by the Dodder, 
but the erection of one was at once undertaken by Sir Robert 
Bagod. Leave to cut timber for building, as well as iirt'. wood, in 
the forest at Maynooth was gi'antod to him by Nicholas do Ilynte- 
berge, and in a gi'ant made by him of portion (if the lands, he 
reserves the riglit to quariy for stone, fur building and fencing. 
At the time of his death, in liii^C), Sii- Kdhci't Hagod's son and 
successor was residing in the castle, which was supplied with iiiuch 
fuiniture and plate, and, as a long inventory of the cro])s and stock 
.shows, fai-ming the lands (^). 



(") "Till XoiMiati Sctflfiiii'nt in Lcinstci'," hy •Tanics .Milh, .lounuil, U.S.A./., 
vol. xxis., |). lOS; r.laikci's Skctclifs. p. (11; " Spciial l{f|)iirL of the 'I'lial in 
tlic, case of the ('ur|)i>ratiiin nl Duliiiii nr.siis tlie l!i:.'lit llini. Siilin y llirlicrt." 
JJubliri. iKfil ; l'tiU:nl Jlolts, ^^. .', ; l'leauii<l .Meinoiamla Hulls ; I'.iil lei's '• K. .jister 
of All Hallows"; Sweetman'tt Calendar; (Jilbert's " Calinilar of .\iRieiit ]{e(uiil.>s 
of JJubliii." 



44 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, &C. 



After the lands, described as then containing two carucates, with 
the castle and a mill, had been for a time held by Walter, son of 
Richard Passavaunt, and by Sir John Cruise and Stephen, Bishop 
of Meath, acting as custodians under the Crown, they came into 
the occupation of William Fitzwilliam, son of Richard Fitzwilliam, 
of Moroton, near Swords, the most important member of the Fitz- 
william family of that period. He was a man of high position and 
influence, and held, amongst other oflices, those of Constable of 
Wicklow Castle, Sheriff of the Counties of Dublin and Meath, and 
Guardian of the Steyne, or sea approach to the metropolis. From 
1379 to 1400 the castle was occupied by him, and then after passing- 
through the hands of James Cotenham and Sir John Stanley, it 
came, in 1403, into the possession of Sir Edward Ferrers. Ferrers 
was a warrior and statesman, who rendered signal service to the 
Crown during the Viceroyalty of the boy Lord Lieutenant, Prince 
Thomas of Lancaster, and who, as Constable of Wicklow Castle, in 
the custody of which he succeeded William Fitzwilliam, kept the 
O'Byrnes in check. He was given, as a mark of the royal favour, 
a grant out of the payments* made to the Crown by the City of 
Dublin, which relieved Baggotrath of rent to the Corporation. 
Ferrers made the castle his home, and soon after he became the 
owner, license was given to his servants to* go by sea to* Wicklow and 
bring from thence building materials for its repair. After his death, 
as he left an only son, who died, after a visit to the English Court, 
in 1428, Baggotrath passed to his widow, Johanna, who was after- 
wards twice married, first to John Eustace of Newland, and, 
secondly, to Sir John Bacon. 

As executor of her will, executed on her death-bed in the Castle 
of Baggotrath on New Year's Eve in the year 1441, James Corn- 
walsh, then Chief Baron of the L'ish Exchequer, came into pos- 
session of Baggotrath. Tliis acquisition was attended with fatal 
consequences to him. The family of Sir Edward Ferrers resented 
Cornwalsh's occupation of a castle which they thought rightfully 
belonged to them, and William Fitzwilliam, the then owner of Dun- 
drum, who had mai'ried Sir Edward Ferrer's daughter, Ismaia, 
determined to take the castle from him. With a gi'eat multitude 
of armed men in warlike array he descended, on the 28th September 
in the following year, upon the castle, and finding there the Chief 
Baron, who had come up from his residence at Dunboyne to hold 
the Michaelmas sittings of his Court, did, as was alleged, traitorously 
and feloniously murder him. Either the charge was not well 



BAGGOTRATH. 



45 



fdundecl. or the provocation was considered an excuse for the (lut- 
rage, ior a pardon was speedily granted to William Fitzwilliani 
anil his wife, and Baggotrath, which was afterwards confirmed to 
him by Sir John Ferrer's nephew- and heir, John Hall, remains in 
the possession of his descendants to the present day (i). 




Baggotrath Castle in 1792. 

From a. I'lalc in (horn's " Antiquities of Ireland.^' 

The Castle of Baggotialh in the year 1 1S9 was in a miinons con- 
dition, but it was subsequently restored, and, as mentioned in the 
history of Men-ion, became the principal residence of Thomas Filz- 
william, who was the great gx'andson of William Fitzwilliani, tho 
son-in-law of Sir Edward Ferrers, and also of his son. Ricliard Fitz- 
williani, who died there. After Sir Thomas Fitzwilliani, the son of 
Richard Fitzwilliani, succeeded to the property wo liiid in 1547 
Robert Jans, a meichant of Diihliii. and 111 iotil I'atiiek Sarsfield 
sometime Mayor of the city, deseiihed as of Baggotrath. Before 
the year loGlS the castle was in the oeeiip.il mii (if a sistcr of Sir 
Thomas Fitzwilliani, Katiierine. widow of .loini Casheil, a Drogheda 
iiiei-ch,-i lit . ;iiid iheri' in I o7 I she dicil ller will eoiit;iins iiineh 



(') .Mciiioran.l;i :nu\ I'h:, KulN; I'mIciiI ll.Jh. |.|.. sf,. \i\<.\. I Si. •_''-'«, LViO. •_'.'. I . 
•_'H;'. ; l'.l;i(kcr"s Sk.tclics. |)|). (i2, l(»!», ."{'.tM ; Calirid;!!- ..t I'ln^'lisli I'nlctil KnlU. 
1422 i42!i, pp. iJ.j, JOl, 471, 478, r,K.i. 



46 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, &C. 

cui'ious infonnatiou as to the manners and customs of that time. 
" To every dweller her tenant in Baggotrath to relieve their 
poverty,"' and to every poor or religious house within the city of 
Dublin, she leaves a ^^eck of malt and of peas ; to St. John's House 
a double quantity, and to the religious house beyond the Liffey, in 
order to obtain their prayers for her soul, "" a pan that breweth one 
peck, with a harness, to remain for the easement of the poor"; 
she mentions various articles of jewellery and apparel, including a 
great and a small ring, a heart of gold, a clasp and silver buttons, 
a gown of purple with gi-een velvet trimmings and a little harness 
girdle, a pair of tassels and a cloak, which she leaves to the parson 
of Trim, who is to redeem it from the person then mending it ; and 
concludes by bequeathing to her cousin, the Mayor of Dublin, John 
Ussher, of whom we shall see under Donnybrook, " a couple of 
beeves " for his kitchen, and to the Mayoress her second-best board 
or table cloth (i). 

About the year 1609 Baggotrath was held under the Fitzwilliams 
by Sir Anthony St. Leger, a son of " the wise and wary " Lord 
Deputy of that name, who held the positioii of Master of the Rolls. 
Before 1615 the castle had passed from him into the occupation of 
the Right Hon. Sir John King, the founder of the Kingston 
family. King was an Irish administrator who earned much dis- 
tinction on the commissions in connection with the early planta- 
tions, and it was as a reward for his services that the vast estate 
in Roscommon owned by his descendants was gi-anted to him. One 
of his 3''ounger sons was the Edward King whose untimely fate by 
the foundering of a ship in which he was crossing from Chester to 
Ireland, in 1637, is deplored in Milton's Lycidas. At the time 
of the Rebellion Baggotrath appears to have been taken possession 
of by the militai-y authorities. Viscount Fitzwilliam com- 
plained on more than one occasion of wastage of his lands 
by the commander of the ordnance, and in June, 1642, 260 
horses belonging to the transport were stationed there. These, the 
night before they were to leave for the countiy, with reinforcements 
just arrived from Chester, were candied off by a party of Wicklow 
mountaineers, and the soldiers had to supply their loss by seizing 
next day from friend and foe alike all the horses they could find 
in the neighbourhood (2). 

(1) :Morrin's " Patent and Close Rolls," Henry VIII.— Elizabeth, j)p. 13(», 4(i."i ; 
Fiant P^lizabeth, No. i2\ ; Will of Katherine Fitzwilliani. 

(2) "Dictionary of National Biography," vol. xxxi., pp. 128, 138, 139, \7A. 
155 : Slacker's Sketches, p. 401 ; Letters to and from the Earl of Cork, preserved 
in the Royal Irish Academy, f. (3-2, and copy in British Museum, Egerton Manu- 
scripts, 80, p. 95. 



BAGGOTRATH. 47 



The event destined at the same time to invest Baggotratli with 
liistorical importance, and to cause the demolition of its castle, the 
Battle of Rathmines, which resulted in the overthrow of the Royalist 



armv under the Duke of Ormonde bv the Dublin garrison of th 



Parliament under the command of Colonel Michael Jones, took 
place in the vear 1649. Ormonde, who had given up Dublin two 
years before that time to the Parliament, had returned to Ireland 
in October, 1648. He had landed at Cork, and after a long delay 
at Kilkenny, spent in reconciling the conflict ing cleiui'nts of which 
his armv was to bo composed, he had advanced on Dublin. in 
the succeeding June he encamped at Finglas, whence, as we have 
seen, a detachment of his forces made an attaek mi the outposts of 
the besieged town at Ringsend. Towards the ciul of July Ormonde, 
for the pr;rpose of more closely investing the town, iinivcd the 
greater portion of his troops to the southern iiidc, and encann)ed 
with them on the lands of Rathmines, near where Palmerston Park 
now lies. 

The Castle of Baggotratli was the strongest building near Dublin, 
and its occupation by Ormonde would have been in the highest 
degi-ee prejudicial to the besieged garrison. The lields lying 
between it and the LilTey provided the only sustenance for their 
horses, and it w^ould have been easy from it to raise earthworks 
along the estuai-y of the river to prevent tlie landing of reinforce- 
ments and provisions. Colonel Jones had, tlierefore, taken the pre- 
caution of partly demolishing the castle. Notwithstanding its 
condition, it was determined at a council of wai- held by Ormonde 
on August 1st, that, if it were possible to fortify it in one night, 
the work should be undertaken and troops ])laced in it. Several 
of Ormonde's generals were at once sent ofT to make an inspi-c't ion, 
and, as their report was favourable, a body of troops to the number 
of L.^iOO men, with materials i'oi- constructing fortifications, under 
the command of Major-General Patiick Purc(-ll, set out that night 
for the ca.stlc. Owing to the Irt-arluiy uf the guides tin- troops 
did not, reach Baggotratli until a little- lu'fore daylight, and when 
Oi-monde rode down from Ratlnnines in tiu- morning he found n.it 
only that the castle was not as strong as he had Ix'.ii led lo iu'lievo, 
but also that owing to the shortness of the time and the m.nni- 
pctenco of till- Engineer the work uf fort ilirat mn was little 
advanced. 

Tlie design of Ormonde had Ix'cn m.nlc kmiwn !•> Cnkmci .bmes, 
and from the high giound near the castle, Oi-m<uidr prrce-ived tiiat 



48 PARISHES OF bONNYBROOK, &C. 

he was getting his army into battle array under the protection of 
earthworks behind Trinity College. A battle was certain, but 
Ormonde thought it would not take place for some hours, and as 
ho had sat up all night he went ofl' to his tent to take some rest, 
ordering the army to stand to their guns. He had not long gone 
when Colonel Jones descended on Baggotrath with 4,000 foot and 
1,200 horse. The only protection which had been erected appears 
to have been a rampart thrown across the road, and, although the 
defenders fought gallantly, this was soon surmounted. The royalist 
horse deserted the foot soldiers, and, most of them having been 
slain or taken prisoners, Colonel Jones followed up his advantage by 
advancing on Rathmines, where the final conflict was waged (i). 

Although the village of Baggotrath, stated at the time of the 
Restoration to have been inhabited by three persons of English 
and twenty-nine persons of Irish descent, continued to exist, no 
attempt was made to restore the Castle of Baggotrath, and it 
remained in a state of ruin until the extension of Dublin in the 
nineteenth century required its removal. The ruins have been 
described by Austin Cooper, -who visited them in 1778, and who 
mentions that a deep trench reminded the visitor of the scenes 
that had been enacted there, but a picture by Francis Grose, 
which is here reproduced, gives a better idea of its appearance ('-^). 



DON N YBROOK. 



DoNNYBROOK, or the Church of St. Broc, now the name of a suburb 
to the north-west of Simmonscourt and south-west of Baggotrath, 
was formerly the designation of a village of very ancient orig'in, and 
at the time of the Anglo-Nonnan Invasion was also the designation 
of a very large extent of lands. These lands, comprising six caru- 
cates, and including those of Merrion and Simmonscourt, as well 
as a townland called Forty Acres, on which Clyde Road is built. 



(' ) Carte's " Life of Ormonde " ; Gardiner's " History of the Comnion wealth and 
Protectorate"; Carte's "Original Letters"; Gilbert's "History of the Irisii 
Confederation and War in Ireland " ; Walsh's " History and Vindication of the 
Loyal Fornuilary or Irish Remonstrance," p. (iOf) ; " A Letter from Sir Lewis 
Dyve to the Lord IMarquis of Newcastle," London, KioO. and " Lieut. -Cf^nerai 
Jones's Letter to the Councel of State of a Great Victory," London, l(i49, ])re- 
served in the Thorpe Tracts in the National Library of Iieland. 

(■-) Poll Tax Returns; Cooper's Note Book ; Grose's " Antii|iiitics of Ireland," 
]). 10; Blacker's Sketches, p. 312. 



DOXXYBROOK. 49 



were then g-iveii, as has been ah'eady I'clated, to Walter de Ridele- 
ford. Lord of Bray. While in possession of his family two portions 
of the lands were granted away in fee, namely, the portion now 
forming Simmonscourt, the alienation of which cut off Merrion from 
Donuybrook and made Merrion a separate manor, and the portion 
known as the Forty Acres, which was granted for the annual pay- 
ment of a pound of pepper to the Priory of All Saints. 

There was not any castle on the lands, which were divided into 
farms held from "Walter de Rideleford by his men of Donnybrook, 
but the village or town in which these men of Donnybrook dwelt 
was for the period one of considerable size. In the fourteenth 
centui-A' it was governed by a bailiff, and probably possessed walls 
which afforded some resistance to the raids of the hillsmen. It 
must, however, have largely depended, owing to the absence of a 
castle, on outlying places for protection, and it was a short-sighted 
policy that indiiccd the inhabitants in 135G to resist a rate to pay 
for watchmen on the mountains to warn them when the Irish 
enemies of the King were meditating an incui-sion. The establish- 
ment of the Fair of Donnybrook, the gi'eat mart of the citizens of 
Dublin in the middle ages, made it also a place of no small 
importance. The license to hold this fair was issued to the citizens 
of Dublin so early as the reign of King John in the year 1204. At 
first the period for which the fair might last was eight days, and it 
was appointed to be held on the vigil, day, and morrow of the In- 
vention of the Holy Cross, which falls on May 3rd, and for five days 
afterwards. The period was subsequently extended to fifteen days, 
the profits from the tolls for two of those days, namely, Ihc vigil and 
the day of the Invention of the Cross, being gi-anted to the Arch- 
bishop of Dublin, and tlie date was changed in IL* I I to tlu' Trans- 
lation of St. Tlmmas the .Maityr. in lL'7'.t. in the Traiislat inn df 
St. Benedict the Abbot, winch Falls in July, and linally to the 
Decollation of St. .Inlm the Baptist, on the L'Oth of August, on 
which fiate it contiimcd to be held until the fair, in its sadly 
degenerated foiiu, ceased to exist in the nineteenth century. 

Besides Walter de Rideleford, who was succeedi-d at Dunnyltrook 
by his eldest daughter, the wnfe of Hugh dc Lacy, Ivirl of Ulster, 
there were others concerned in the lands nf the district. Chief n( 
these was Waltir d'- L.nv. lucillnr df the i-;,iil nf rister, who 
grantid lands in I )iinn vin "dk to one W'altei' Missel, in consideia- 
t ion of the lent Im IIm ('inwn, which was the |i,i\iiien( l'<<v nne 
archei- rendered at iln gate of huMin ("aslle. Anmngst <ither 

K 



50 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, &C. 



persons inciitioned in connection with the ownership of the lands 
in the thirteenth century are Heniy de Verneuil, who in 1222 had 
co suit with Walter de Rideleford touching them ; Theobald le 
Butler, or de Verdon, whose mother was grand-daughter and co*- 
heir of Walter de Lacy; and Matilda le Butler, who exchanged 
with William de London and Matilda, his wife, her interest in the 
Manor of Wicklow for a messuage and 183 acres of land in Donny- 
brook (1). 

After being for a time at the beginning of the fourteenth cen- 
tui-y in the possession of the Bagods of Baggotrath, who held also 
the Forty Acres under the Priory of All Saints, and subsequently 
in that of the FitzwilHams of Dundrum, the lands of Donnybrook 
passed to the Ussher family on the marriage in 1524 of Alison, 
daughter of Thomas Fitzwilliam, and sister of Richard Fitzwilliam, 
then owner of Meri'ion, Baggotrath, and Dundrum, to Christopher 
Ussher, a collateral ancestor of the two distinguished Primates of 
his name. The Usshers were great people in the Dublin mercantile 
world of that day, and Christopher Ussher filled, as his father had 
done before him, the office of Mayor. Like Richard Fitzwilliam, 
he was a devoted adherent of the house of Kildare, and in 1514 
was presented by the Earl with a hackney. He had been previously 
married, and was nearly saxty when he contracted the alliance with 
Alison Fitzwilliam. He only survived this marriage two years, and 
died, leaving an infant son. This son, John Ussher, who succeeded 
tO' the Donnybrook estate, followed in his father's footsteps, became 
Mayor of Dublin, and rose tO' a^ position of much eminence amongst 
the inhabitants of that city. When a young man of little over thirty 
we find him acting as Captain of the City Levies in an expedition 
against the Scottish invaders, but in later life he turned his atten- 
tion to the works of peace, and is remarkable as being the person to 
whose munificence and religious zeal we owe the first book printed 
in Irish, which was a translation of the Catechism of the Church of 
Ireland. He stood high in the favour of the Government officials 
as a conscientious and God-fearing man, and was a frequent visitor 
to London in conneetion with projects for the increase of the 
revenue, his profits in which he desired to bestow in founding a 
college or university. 



(1) Memoranda and Plea Rolls ; Patent Rolls, pp. 4, 62 ; Sweetman's Calendar, 
1171-1251, Xo. 103fi. 1070, 1109. 1302-1.307, No. 547 : Christ Church Deeds, Xos. 
501, 541 ; Butler's "Register of All Hallows"; "The Norman Settlement in 
Leinster," by James Mills in Jniirnal. ftiS.A.I., vol. xxiv., p. lf)7 ; Blacker's 
Sketches, pp". 44, 60, 139, 375, 



DOXNYBROOK. 51 



When the Ussliers acquired Donuybiook, then stated to contain 
tlu-ee dwellings and one and a half carucates of laud, as well as a 
watermill, a source of much revenue, which the Fitzwillianis retained 
themselves, it contained no mansion house, but during the sixteenth 
century the Usshers erected there a handsome Elizabethan resi- 
dence. This became the home of John Usshers only surviving son, 
Sir William Ussher, for over forty years Clerk of the Privy Council 
and sometime representative in Parliament for the borough of 
Wicklow. His first wife was a daughter of the great Archbishop 
Loftus. who speaks of Sir William's father as '" a rare man for 
honesty and religion," and to his father-in-law's influence, in 
addition to his own fidelity, learning, and good character, the success 
which attended him in life is to be attributed. He continued to 
carry on the work of printing books in Irish commenced by his 
father, and in his town house in Bridgefoot Street, in the year 1602, 
the first Irish version of the New Testament was printed. This was 
dedicated to King James I., who thus became acquainted, before 
he ascended the throne of England, with Sir William Ussher, and 
did not aftei^wards forget him. 

Sir William Ussher's eldest son, Arthur Ussher, who was drowned 
while crossing the Dodder in presence of a number of persons on 
horseback and on foot, including his nearest friends, who were 
powerless to save him, predeceased him, and Sir William Ussher, 
who died in 1637 at a very advanced age, was succeeded by his 
grandson. Sir William Ussher the younger. As his gi'andfather 
had done before him, the latter made a great match, marrying the 
daughter of Sir William Parsons, aftei'wards a Lord Justice of Ire- 
land, and a relative of the first Earl of Cork, who mentions young 
Ussher more than once in his diary ; but it was probably to liis 
gi-andfather's interest that he owed the honour of Knighthood which 
was conferred on him by the Earl of Straflford during his grand- 
father's lifetime. Sir William Ussher the elder had, besides his 
eldest son, a son Adam, who was Ulster Kins:; "f Arms, and six 
daughters; his eldest son, Arthur Ussher, who was joined with hin\ 
in the office of Clerk of the Council, had eight sons and four 
daughters, and Sir William Ussher the younger, who was twico 
married, had eight sons and four daughters. It would be impossible 
to give a list of all the noble and distinguished persons \vli.> trace 
descent from them, but amongst these may be mciifiniu'd I lie Dukes 
of Wellington and T^cinstcr, and the Earls of Rosse, Egmoiil. I.anes- 
borough. Kniiiskillcn. .nnl .MillldWii (1). 

(') Ball Wripht'H " UsHher Mt'inoirs," Cliaiitcrs xi. mid xii. ; Historical Mann- 
sfripLs Ct)iiitniHHinn, Hr-nort ix., App.. ]»t. i., p. 'JH2 ; " 'I'Iip Poscription of Ireland in 
ir,()S," r-ditc-fl hv lic-v. Kdniiind H-.u-an, |). ."JT ; (;ill>(.Tt"s " History of Dnl.jin," vol. 
i., p. 388; Will f.f Sir- Willi.irn I'ssln'i-. 

E 2 



52 



PARISHES OF DONNYHKOOK, &.C. 







Si 

o 



O 
O 

. «» 



Vi 



•^ 



a 05 






CO 



o 
3 



DOXNVBKOOK. 53 



The boldness of the iel)els and i]\v ininiinrnt poiil to which the 
City of Dublin was exposed in the rebellion of 1641 are forcibly 
illustrated by depositions made by the owners of two farms at 
Donnybrook. In the first of these Richard Winstanley deposed 
that in addition to the destniction of his house he had suffered the 
loss of twenty cows of English breed, and eight horses carried off 
from his farm within two miles of Dublin, and in the second, Robert 
Woodward, whose house at Donnybrook had also been destroyed, 
deposed that the rebels had followed him to College Gi'een, where 
he had taken his cattle for safety, and carried off thirty cows and 
five horses. When setting out from Dublin, after taking Drogheda, 
for the South of Ireland, Oliver Cromwell selected Donnybrook as 
the rendezvous f(n- his aruiy, and there on September 22, 1649, 
four regiments of light horse, four regiments of dragoons, and four 
regiments of foot assembled and encamped that night. At the 
time of the Rcstoraticni the ]iopulation of Donnybrook is returned 
as four persons of English :\])d nine persons of Irish descent, and a 
few years later Sir William Ussher is returned as occupying the 
mansion house, which was rated for the purposes of taxation as 
containing thirteen hearths. The mill, which was still a source of 
profit, continued to be the j^roperty of the Fitzwillianas, and is 
mentioned amongst the possessions of the Earl of Tyrconne! and of 
his nephew, the fourth Viscount Fitzwilliam (i). 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century the mansion house 
of Donnybrook was held under the eldest son of Sir William Ussher 
the younger, Christopher Ussher, '• a person of true piety, solid 
judgment, and great estate, eminent fm- his great charity, and a 
vast encourager of learning," by Mr. Thomas Twigg, who belonged 
to the legal profession. On the death of Mr. Twigg in 17(12 the 
mansion house, in accordance with the terms of his will, in which he 
directs that he should be buried " without lunse or chai'ge '" in St. 
Kevin's Church, became vested in tnistees for the purposes of sale. 
One of these trustees M'as Sir Francis Stoyte, who was Emd Mayor 
of Dublin in 1 Tii.". and. as nienlicmed in Dean Swift's Journal to 
Stella, some oi Stoytc's relatives afterwards occupied it. There 
Stella stayed, and so could not write to Swift ; thei-e she lust money 
at cards with Dean Sterne and the Stoytcs ; there she was earrieil 
by Dean Sterne to cut asparagus ; and there Goody Stoyte was to 
give Swift a world of dinners (~). 



(') DopDsitioiis rif Ki-H (Micli.inl Wiiislaiilcy iiml TJolicrt Woodward ofDidiliii) : 
MiinuHcript in 'IVinily i't>\\i-iif Lilnarv. F. 4, l(i ; I'nII 'I'a.v lU'tmiis; lliaitli 
iMoney Koll (City of Dublin). 

(■') Mall Wiu'IiCh " UhhIkt IM.-moirs." p. MS ; Hla.kci's SKi-lclios, pp. 1(1_>. U):,, 
41.j; Wilts of Twigg and Stoyte faniiliis. 



54 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, &C. 

Amongst other temporary residents in the mansion house was 
one of the six clerks in the Court of Chancery, Isaac Dobson. He 
was the son of a leading Dublin bookseller and publisher in the 
reign of Queen Anne, of whom more will be seen as a resident at 
Dundrum, and from his three daughters, of whom the eldest was 
'■ a yornig lady of great merit, beauty, and three thousand pounds 
fortune," are descended Lord Carew, Sir William Joshua Paul of 
Waterford, and the Moores of Mooresfort, in the County Tipperary. 
At the same time portion of the mansion house was. occupied by a 
young barrister, Warden Flood, who was destined to become Chief 
J ustice of Ireland, and to be father of the well-known statesmaii 
and orator, but who, owing to his slender means, lived at Donny- 
brook in a retired manner, and was not popular on account of his 
pride and reserve (i). 

The interest of the Twiggs in the mansion house and demesne 
lands of Donnybrook was in 1726 sold to Robert Jocelyn, then 
M.P. for Granard and third Sergeant-at-Law, and subsequently Lord 
Chancellor of Ireland, the ancestor of the Earls of Roden. He was 
an Englishman of good fajnily — a grandson of a baronet. — who had 
come to this country in the year 1719 to practice at the bar. In 
the society which his countiymen, who then filled the highest posi- 
tions in Church and State, made amongst themselves, and into 
which he had the entree, Jocelyn became acquainted with the 
Bishop of Kilmore, Dr. Timothy Goodwyn, and little more than a 
year after his call to the bar he was married to that prelate's sister- 
in-law in Kilmore Cathedral. To the Bishop his return as member 
for Granard was due, which, in conjunction with the friendship of 
Lord Chancellor Hardwicke, with whom he had been in chambers 
in London, led to his legal promotion. After his appointment to 
the woolsack, Jocelyn took Mount Merrion House from the Fitz- 
williams, and under that place something more will be seen of 
him (2). 

The old mansion house of Donnybrook, of which a sketch, taken 
by Thomas Ashworth, a linen printer, who was murdered in 1757 
on the high road from Dublin to Donnybrook, is here reproduced, 
was at this time falling into decay, being finally demolished in 1759, 



(M Blacker's Sketches, p. 169 ; Pue's Occurrences, vol. xxxvi., No. 53. 

{"-) Blacker's Sketches, pp. 162, 41.'5 ; "Dictionary of National Biography," 
vol. xxix., p. 399 ; " Letters to and from Bishoj) Nicholson," vol. ii., pp. 502, 
r)25-.527 ; Barristers' Oath Roll in Public Record Office; Kilmore Grant Book; 
" Life of Lord Chancellor Hartlwicke." 



BONNYBROOK. 



and Lord Chancellor Jocelyn appears to have lived in a house which 
still exists on the Eglinton Road, and is known under the name of 
Ballinguile. This house, which was approached bv an avenue of 
elms and was surrounded by gardens and fields, he leased, on going 
to live at Mount Merrion. to ]\Ir. Arthur Xcwburgh, Secretary of 
the Linen Board, who was married to one of the Coles, and subse- 
quently in 1749 he assigned it to his son, who succeeded to the vis- 
county bestowed on him, and was created Earl of Roden. Amongst 
other residents at Donnybrook in Lord Chancellor Jocelyn 's time 
were the Rector of the parish, Archdeacon Whittingliam, who 
resided in the glebe house adjoining the old graveyard in the village, 
and William Roberts, an eminent doctor of laws, who resided at 
Coldblow, now known as Belmont Avenue, and whose collateral 
descendant, Captain Lewis Riall, D.L., of Old Connaught 71 ill, now 
owns his property (i). 

During the early part of the eighteenth century the river Dodder 
was crossed at Donnybrook by a ford, and it was not until the year 
1741 that a bridge was erected. This bridge was carried away by 
mountain floods within six months of its construction- an occur- 
rence which it was feared would ruin the contractors who had given 
security to keep it in repair for fourteen years. On the Stillorgan 
Road, where now lies Xutley, the seat of the Right lion. Mr. Justice 
Madden, there was then a small village known as Priesthouse, the 
principal resident in which was Mr. Patrick M'Carthy, a linen and 
cotton bleacher. A curious advertisement appeared in 1750 from 
M'Carthy warning his customers, whom it was his intention to serve 
with care, justice, and honour, that some employee, without his 
knowledge, had used lime in the bleaching procesS' — a thing which 
he had sworn before Mr. Arthur Newburgh never to do himself — 
and he announced in 1764 that he had bleached a parcel of stockings 
for the Prince of Wales, and invited the public to join a royal caval- 
cade of his friends adorned with orange and blue cockades, who 
had undertaken to accompanv him when bringing his handiwork 
to Dublin Castle. Doiinylnook Fair lia<l before that time become 
a place of amusement, and its drolleries, doubtless, gave rise in 1729 
to a satirical elegy on the much-laim iittd death of Madam Bentley, 
who bi'okc her neck when riding to Donnvbidok a lady lor whom 
tlie poet predicts no good fate in the mxt woild. Apart from the 
Fail". Donnvlirook was also in tiie eigiiteentli century a great resort 



(') Cjabri(;l Hcrnnifcr'H Skctcli Hook in l{o\al liisli Acftdi'iiiy ; I'km lamiitioiis 
in Public Keconl Otiii <■ : Hlucki-r'ri Skfti-lics. pp. Ti'. M'.S. ITn, I'TM ; W ill of Willium 
Roberts. 



56 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, ctC. 

of the citizens of Dublin, and in the early part of that period we 
find houses with the signs of the Red Cross and of the Dargle. 
Later on, in addition to an inn renowned for its Wicklow ale, two> 
tea houses were opened — one of these known as the sign of the 
Rose, occupying the glebe house, formerly the residence of Arch- 
deacon Whittingham (i). 

Amongst the residents in the later half of the eighteenth century 
we find Sir Edward Barry, who lived in a large house known as 
Barry House, on the main road to Dublin. He was a physician of 
great eminence, on whom a baronetcy was conferred, and was author 
of several medical works, including one on the history of wines, a 
subject of which he was the first to treat scienbifically. After his 
death, Barry House became in 1777 the residence of Robert Hellen, 
then Solicitor-General for Ireland, and afterwards a Justice of 
the Common Pleas, who' figures in the pages of " Baratariana," and 
there in 1793 Judge Hellen died. He was a most popular judge, 
esteemed for his profound legal knowledge as well as for his 
urbanity, and was a man of literary tastes and culture, his library 
being one of the best in the kingdom of his day, and his collection 
of paintings and antiquities of rare excellence. Another resident 
was Lieutenant-General Lewis Dejean, Colonel of the Regiment of 
Horse Carbineers, who in 1762 entertained the Lord Lieutenant, 
the Earl of Halifax, at dinner at his house on the Donnybrook 
Road, and died two years later at the age of eighty ; and the 
Downes family, of which Lord Downes, Chief Justice of the King's 
Bench, was a distinguished member, was long seated there. Bal- 
linguile had become the residence of John Fitzgibbon, the father of 
Lord Chancellor Clare, the determined opponent of the Union, and 
later on the fourth Viscount Chetwynd had a country house near 
Donnybrook Green. At Coldblow, died in 1789, Sir William 
Fortick, whose name is still preserved in an almshouse in Little 
Denmark Street founded by a member of his family, and subse- 
quently it was for many years the home of the Honble. Denis 
George, successively Recorder of Dublin and a Baron of the Ex- 
chequer (2). 



(^) Slacker's Sketches, pp. 165, 425; Steele's "Notes on Ireland," Bodleian 
Library MS., 18316, f. 5 ; Leases in Registry of Deeds Office ; " An Elegy on 
Madam Bentley," preserved amongst Irish Pamphlets in Trinity College Library ; 
Dublin Journal, Nos. 2428, 3896 ; Puts Occurrences, vol. Ivii., Xo. 84. 

(2) Leases in Registry of Deeds Office ; " Dictionary of National Biography," 
vol. iii., p. 314; Barrington's "Personal Recollections," vol. i.. p. 119; Blacker's 
Sketches, pp. 82, 83, 170, 182, 186 ; Tyner's " Travellers' Cuide through Ireland," 
p. 78 ; Gentleman's Magazine for 1821, pt. i., p. 647 ; Pue's Occurrences, vol. lix., 
Nos. 34, 46, 67 ; vol. Ixi., Nos. ()317, 6318; vol. Ixii., No. 6396. 



DONNYBROOK — ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 57 

The far-famed fair of Doiinybrook was throughout the eighteenth 
centurv, and down to the year 1855, when it was abolished, the 
annual carnival of the Dublin populace. It has formed the 
theme of innumerable ballads and hxunorous descriptions, and 
it would be well if history could confinn the account which 
they give of a scene of light-hearted gaiety. This, however, 
truth does not permit. All references in local literature indicate 
that the fair was the occasion of drunkenness, riot, and moral 
degi-adation which were a disgrace to Ireland, and it would sci-ve 
no useful purpose to enter more fully into particulars of revels, the 
abolition of which was a service to civilization (i). 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

DoNNYBRooK was, ill the opinion of that learned Celtic scholar, the 
late Dr. James Henthorn Todd, the site of a Convent founded in 
the early days of the Irish Church by a holy woman canonized 
under the name of St. Broc, and in the Martyrology of Donegal, 
Mobi, a nun of Donnybrook, whose festival fell on September 30th, 
is noticed. St. Broc was one of the seven daughters of Dallbronach, 
who resided in the barony of Deece, in the County Meath, and is 
mentioned in the Works of Aengus the Culdee (-). 

A church, which probal)ly had its origin in the religious establish- 
ment of St. Broc, existed in Donnybrook (where a largo gi-aveyard 
marks its site), at the time of the Anglo-Norman conquest. It was 
then a member of the Church of Taney or Dundrum, a cluuch of 
great importance in Celtic times, and was given in tlu- beginning of 
the thirteenth century with the latter church by xVrchbishop Luke, 
whose chaplain, William de Romney, had for a time held it, to the 
Archdeacon of Dublin as part of the support of his dignity. From 
that time until the year 1864, when it was severed from his corps 
and made a separate benefice, it continued with short interregnums 
— at the time of the dissolution of the religious houses and at the 
time of the Commonwealth- to belong to the Archdeacon of Dublin. 



(>) Hlackcr's Sketches, pp. 13. IT. so, Sf,. S!). OS. 1(2. ITo. I<i7. 
(■') Biacker'H Sketches, j>. l-'o. 



58 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, &C. 

Of the church in early times there is little recorded, but its valua- 
tion — thirteen marks — shows that it possessed a considerable num- 
ber of worshippers, and it was served by a resident chaplain 
under the Archdeacons. At the time of the dissolution of the 
religious houses the tithes, including those from the fisheries, and 
church dues, were valued at £15 3.'^. 4d., and these, together with 
the glebe house and three acres of land, were leased first to John 
Sharp and aftei-wards to John Goldsmith, of Dublin, who- under- 
took to jjrovide a fit chaplain for the church (i). 

The chapel at Merrion, the site of which is marked by a grave- 
yard, referred to under the history of that place, does not appear 
to have been an edifice of any importance (2), and after the dis- 
solution of the religious houses in the sixteenth century the Church 
of Donnybrook, as has been already mentioned, became the burying 
place of the Fitzwilliams, who had a chapel off it, in which Richard 
Fitzwilliam in 1596 ordered a tomb in naemory of his ancestors to 
be erected. In the beginning of the seventeenth century both the 
chancel and nave of the church were in good repair, and there was 
a congregation of about forty. The duty was discharged by curates 
appointed by the Archdeacons, and amongst those who served in 
that capacity were, in 1615, the Rev. Robert Pont, who wasi mur- 
dered a few years later at Rathdrum, in the County Wicklow — a 
vicarage to which he had been appodnted by the Crown ; in 1630, 
the Rev. Richard Prescott, a master of arts and a preacher, to 
whom the Archdeacon allowed a stipend of £12 out of his tithes, 
amounting to £100; in 1639, the Rev. Nathaniel Hoyle, already 
referred to in connection with Bullock ; in ] 644, the Rev. John 
Watson, like Mr. Hoyle, a Fellow of Trinity College; in 1645, the 
Rev. George Hudson, a prebendary of St. Patrick's Cathedi-al, who 
died the next year; in 1647, the Rev. John Butler; and in 1648, 
the Rev. William Selby (3). 

The Roman Catholic Church at the beginning of the seventeenth 
centui-y had enacted that parishes should be reconstructed for the 
purpose of administration, and that, when from want of clergy 
priests could not be found for each, several parishes should be 



(1) Slacker's Sketches, pp. 60, 64. 99, 226, 370; " Crede Mibi," edited by Sir 
John Gilbert, p. 136 ; Fiant Edward VI., No. 39. 

{^) See for tombstone inscriptions in Merrion graveyard, Blacker's Sketches, 
pp. .52, 470 ; and Journal of the Association for the Preservation of the Memorials 
of the Dead. 

(=') Archbishop Bulkeley's Keport, p. 148; Blacker's Sketches, pp. 65.482: 
Calendar of Irish State Papers, 1625-1632 ; Cotton's " Fasti Ecclesire Hibernicfe " 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 59 



united. Under this ordinance in 1630 the Rc\\ John Cahill was 
serving Donnybrook as well as Ringsend. Irishtown, Bootei'stown, 
Blaekrock, Stilloigan, Kilmacud, and Dundruin, and holding ser- 
vices at Dundium, under the protection of the Fitzwilliams, and 
at Balally, then owned by the Walshes, another Roman Catholic 
family. Later ou a Roman Catholic place of woi'ship was estab- 
lished at Booterstowu, which in 1697 was served by the Rev. 
Patrick Gilmore, who had charge (f the places mentioned, and was 
then living at Newtown on the Strand, or Seapoint, as it is now 
called (1). 

Under the Established Church, after the Restoration, we find 
amongst the curates in charge of Donnybrook in 1669 the Rev. 
William FitzGerald. afterwards Bishop of Clonfert and Kilmac- 
duagh, of whom Archbishop Narcissus Marsh held no high opinion, 
and in 1679 the Rev. John Sankey. During the Revolution, owing 
to the resignation of the Archdeacon of Dublin, Dr. John Fitz- 
Gerald, who was a brother of the Rev. William FitzGerald, and who 
was one of the non-jurors, the tithes of Donnybrook, together with 
those of Rathfarnhaiii, also part of the Archdeacon's corps, were 
sequestrated to the Rev. John Tucker and Daniel Reading. Arch- 
bishop King, in his diaiy, mentions that one Walker, " formerly 
a cobbler, afterwards a servant to Viscount Lisburne of Rath- 
fai-nham, and then a Comet of Horse in King James's Army," 
threatened the Protestants of those parishes that if they did not 
pay their tithes ho would kill them and burn all their corn. The 
curates of Donnybrook, aft-er the Revolution, included in 1691 the 
Rev. John King; in 1694, the Rev. Thomas Leigh, a minor canon 
of St. Patrick's Cathedral, and a member of a family now repre- 
sented by the Balfours of Townley Hall, County Louth ; and in 1698 
the Rev. Anthony Raymond, afterwards Vicar of Trim, frequently 
mentioned by Dean Swift in his Journal to Stella, the increasing 
congregation, doubtless, being the occasion of the presentation to the 
church in 1699 of a chalice and flagon, which are still in use, by the 
Archdeacon of that day. the Venerable Richard Reader (-). 

The beginning of the eighteenth century saw the erection of the 
Royal Chapel of St. Matthew at Ringsend, now generally known as 
Irishtown Church. It was built at a cost of £1,000, towards which 



(') ArchbiBliop I'.iilkclcy'a Report, p. 148; Dofiiin.-iils pn-scrvr.l in .Maisli's 
Library (3-1-18). 

CO DiofcHiin Hcronls : rV)f(t,ii's " Fiisli EcclcHiiu IlilKiniciP " ; ' I^IihI^it's 
Sketches, p. KiO; Archbi.sliop King's Diary. 



GO PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, &C. 

the inhabitants of Ringsend were only able to contribute £23, and 
was completed in 1707, with the exception of a steeple, which was 
in 1712 ordered to be built at the charge of the Corporation of 
Dublin. It was one of the chui'ches which the Diocese of Dublin 
owes to the zeal of the good Archbishop William King, to whom, 
provision for a resident minister was for maiuy years a. subject of 
anxiety. In 1721 King writes to the Commissioners of Revenue 
in support of an application from a Mr. Porter, who had been vei-y 
industrious in overseeing the building of the chapel and in soliciting 
subscriptions, that a grant should be given for the purpose, and 
says that he allowed himself £20 a year for the performance of 
Sunday duty there, which had been for a time undertaken by the 
Curate of Donnybrook, the Rev. Walter Thomas, and was then 
performed by the Rev. John Borough, ancestor of a^ baronet of that 
name. After great exertions the Archbishop was successful in 
securing the necessary amount, and in 1723 the Rev. John Borough, 
who died in 1726, and was buried in the churchyard, was appointed 
the first minister. He was followed in 1726 by the Rev. Michael 
Hartlib, -who in early life was patronised by the Ormonde family, 
and whose ajDpointment, as he held a distant benefice. Archbishop 
King did not approve; in 1741 by the Rev. Isaac Mann, who was 
afterwards successively Archdeacon of Dublin and Bishop of Cork ; 
in 1750 by the Rev. Theophilus Brocas ; in 1764 by the Rev. John 
Brocas; and in 1795 by the Rev. Robert Ball, who is buried in 
Stillorgan Churchyard (i). 

The Fitzwilliams continued to make use of their burying place at 
Donnybrook; in 1667 Oliver, Earl of Tyrconnel was laid there, in 
1676 Thomas, third Viscount Fitzwilliam, and in 1776 Richard, 
sixth Viscount Fitzwilliam, but besides these a host of distinguished 
people were buried at Donnybrook, and, to compare great things 
with small, Donnybrook Churchyard may be considered the Mount 
Jerome of the eighteenth century. Amongst those interred there 
were^ — in 1729, Archbishop King, who was buried, according to his 
desire, " in the little pleasant village " of Donnybrook in a tomb 
prepared by Ulster King of Arms, and whose interment was 
attended by most of the nobility and gentry, and thousands of 
the citizens; in 1730, his nephew. Archdeacon Dougatt, who was 
buried in the same grave ; in 1733, Sir Edward Lovet Pearce, the 
architect of the Houses of Parliament, whose residence at Stillorgan, 



(M Archbishop King's Correspondence preserved in Trinity College Library, 
Class v., Tab. 3. Xos. 3 and 7 ; Diocesan Records ; Blacke.-'s Sketches, pp. 72, 
74, 77, 80, 83, 92, 93, 146, 152, 161, 162, 167, 180, 191. 201, 279, 406, 409, 446 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 61 



where he died, has been noticed ; in 1739. his brother, Lieutenant- 
General Thomas Pearce, who was "■ at once Governor, Mayor, and 
Representative in Parliament of the City of Limerick"; in 1758, 
Bishop Clayton and the Right Hon. James Tynte; in 1759, Dr. Bar- 
tholomew Mosse, the founder of the Lying-in Hospital, who died at 
Cullenswood ; in 176'2, Arthur Newburgh (whose residence ab 
Donnybrook has been noted), and his wife, who only survived him 
a few months; in 1766, Bishop Clayton's widow; in 1780, the Hon. 
Francis Napier; and in 1785, Sir James Stratford Tynte, the 
General of the Volunteers. At Irishtown also some persons of note 
were buried, including Lord Chancellor Jocelyn's first wife, Henry, 
Lord Power, and a son of Lord Mayo (i). 

During the first twenty years of the eighteenth century the cure 
of Donnybrook was entrusted to the Rev. Walter Thomas, but on 
succeeding to the Archdeaconry in 1719 the Venerable Charles 
Whittingham came to reside, as has been mentioned, in tlie glebe 
house next the churchyard, and ministered in the parish, with the 
assistance of his curates at St. Peter's, Dublin. Amongst those 
actins: as curates of St. Peter's and Donnvbrook were — in 1735, the 
Rev. Thomas Heany, afterwards Curate of INlonkstown ; in 1747, 
the Rev. William Donellan ; in 1749, the Rev. Thomas Burton; in 
1750, the Rev. James Hawkins, afterwards successively Bishop of 
Dromore and Raphoe ; in 1753, the Rev. John Druiy, a prebendary 
of Christ Church and St. Patrick's Cathedral, who died in 1791 in 
Cuffe Street ; in 175G, the Rev. Peter Chaigncau, who was Secretary 
of the Dul)lin Society; in 1757 the Rev. John Owimi, "a young 
gentleman of extraordinary good character," who d'wd in 17l')0 in 
St. Stephen's Green. Then we find ,i|)])ointcd for Donnybrook 
alone in 1760, the Rev. Pliili|) Sheills; in 1761, tlu> Rev. Lawrence 
Grace; in 1767, the Rev. Dive Downes, brother of Lord Downes, 
sometime Chief Justice of the King's Bench; in 177L', the Rev. 
]Matthew West, the autlior of several poems and phiys ; in 1780, 
the Rev. Gore AVood ; and in 1800, the Rev. George Wogan, who 
was niuich red in IS'Ji; by burglars (-). 

During the eighteenth ccMitury the Roman Catholic Church estab- 
lished a place of worship at Ringscnd in addition to the one which 



P) Sfo fnr iii.^^friptiniK on toiiiIisfDiics in Ddtiiivln'ook L'ravcvnnl iitnl ni Si. 
.Matthew's, Jiinf.scn.l, lilackci'.s Skct.li.-,^. pp. liit ISS, I.VJ l.->7. --'SS ;t(is. ;{)•_> :{.-.(i, 
also for intfrmenlH, n.xtracts from the p.iiisli rciristoi-K in Hln<kt'r's Skrtiiic'^. pp. 
•271-288. 

(2) Diocr-san Rfronis : Ulacki-i's Skctciics. pp. 71. SS, '.I'J. lliJ, I'.Hl. -".Mi. 111. 
413, 41.'., 4:{K, m, \\H, 11!». I.'.l, (.V2, 4r.4, 4():{ ; CottoD'H "Fasti Kcclvsia.' 
IlitMrnicaj." 



62 PARISHES OF DONNYBROOK, &C. 

existed at Booterstowii, and in the year 1788 Ringsend was severed 
from the other parishes, and made an independent charge. Amongst 
the clergy serving in Booterstown we find in 1731 the Rev. Francis 
Archbold; in 1766, the Rev. Matthew Kelly; in 1775, the Rev. 
James Nicholson; and in 1794, the Rev. Thomas Connolly, a 
preacher of great celebrity. Ringsend was in 1766 se^rved by the 
Rev. Mr. Brady, as Curate to Mr. Kelly, and after its severance 
from Booterstown the following were appointed to its charge: — 
in 1788, the Rev. Peter Richard Clinch, whO' is buried in Irish- 
tcwn Churchyard; and in 1792, the Rev. Charles Joseph Finn, 
an accomplished scholar (i). 

An interestiing description is given by Austin Cooper of the 
appearance at the close of the eighteenth century of the old Church 
of Donnybrook, which was dedicated to St. Mary. It was, as he 
mentions in his notebook under the date March 8tli, 1780, a very 
plain structure, of T. shape. Opposite the entrance stood the 
Communion Table, which was severely unadorned, and on the right 
hand side of the entrance was the reading desk, which was sur- 
mounted by a handsome pulpit. Between the reading desk and the 
Communion Table the royal arms were displayed, and on the 
opposite wall there were several trophies composed of flags and 
banners, a coat of armour, and a sword and shield, with the motto 
'■ ad mart (III /7r/r//s-." A fine black marble font, which was placed 
in the church in the year 1729, stood at the entrance to the nave. 
Adjoining the chancel was the chapel built by the Fitzwilliams, the 
door of which was always locked, and from which there had been 
fonnerly an entrance into the church near the Communion Table, 
and in it there was then to be seen a black marble tomb bearing the 
inscription " Here lyeth the body of the Right Honourable and 
Most Noble Loi'd Oliver, Earl of Tyrconnel, Lord Viscount Fitz- 
williams, of Meryonge, Baron of Thorncastle, who died at his house 
in Mei-yonge April 11th, 1667, and was buried the 12th day of the 
same month " (2). 

Of the ecclesiastical history of Donnybrook in the nineteenth 
century and of the numerous places of worship with which the dis- 
trict is now adorned much information will be found in the 
charming annals of the parishes of Booterstown and Donnybrook 
compiled by one of the most painstaking of parish historians, the 



(MBlacker's Sketches, pp. 88, 154, 160, 205, 426, 428, 430, 447, 4-50, 453, 457 ; 
Religious Returns preserved in the Public Record Office. 

(2) Cooper's Note Book; Blacke/s Sketches, p. 16.5. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 63 

late Rev. Beaver 11. Blacker, who long ministered in them. Here 
it will suffice to record a few of the more important events. In 
1824 a movement set on foot by Mr. James Digges La Touche, of 
Sans Souci, already mentioned in the history of Bootei*stowu, 
resulted in the severance of the Booterstown district from Donny- 
brook. Bootex'stown, the tithes of which had been enjoyed in 
an anomalous manner by the Dean of Christ Church as rector of 
the adjoining parish of Monkstown, was then fonned into a 
separate parish, with the church, dedicated to SS. Philip and James, 
in Cross Avenue, which was then erected, as the parish church. 
In 1827 the old church of Donnybrook, all trace of which has 
completely disappeared, was replaced by the modern church of St. 
Mary in Simmonscourt. And shortly before the Disestablish- 
ment of the Irish Church, in 1867, a similar movement to that in 
Booterstown resulted in the formation of the parish of St. Bartholo- 
mew, which comprises lands formerly in Donnybrook, with some 
additions from the original parish of St. Peter's, Dublin, and in the 
erection of the handsome parish church in Clyde Road (i). 



(1) Blackor's Sketches, passim. 



64 PARISH OF TANEY. 



Parish of Taney. 

(Coimnoiilji Cdl/cd Dimdnon — i.e., Dinidronia, or tin' Fort on the Ih'd'je.) 



Tho Parish of Taney is sliown on the Down Survey Map, which was made in 1657, 
as consisting of tlie Townlands of Dondrom, Ballintery, Rabuck, Owiienstown, 
Kihnacudd, Ballowley, Tybeistowne, Moltanston-ne, and Milltowne. 

Dondrom and BalHntery are represented by the modern Townlands of BalHnteer 
(i.e., Baile-an-tsaeir, or the Town of the Carpenter), Drunimartin, and Dun- 
drum. 

Rabuck is represented by Friarsland, jjart of Roebuck, Mount Anviilc, and 
Trimlestown or Owenstown. 

Ownensto^^•n now foiins part of Mount Merrion or Callary. 

Ballowley is represented by Balally (i.e., Bally-Amhlaibh, or the To\\ n of Olave). 

Milltowne by C'hurchtown Lower and Upper, Farranboley {i.e., Dairy Land) and 

part of Roebuck. 
Tyberstowne and Moltanstowne are now included in the Parish of Kill-of-the- 

Grange, and Kilmacudd is a separate Parish. 
The modern Townlands of Rathmines Great and Little were formerly included in 

the Parish of Rathfarnham, Mount Merrion South formed part of Kilmacud, 

and the lands included in Kingstown and Tiknock {i.e., Tigh-cnuic.or the House 

of the Hill), do not appear in the Down Survey. 

The only object of archaeological interest in the Parish is Dundrum Castle. 



DUNDRUM AND ITS CASTLE. 

Dundrum, or the Fort ou the Ridge, which lies to the west of Still- 
organ and south-west of Donnybrook, still possesses remains of a 
castle, occupying, possibly, the sdte of the dun or fort from which 
the place derives its name. These remains are in the grounds of 
the modern house known as Dundrum Castle, ovei"hanging the river 
which flows through the village, and besides being of considerable 
extent are of great strength, one of the walls being nearly six feet 
thick. The castle, which was built in two portions, one much larger 
than the other, is now an empty shell, but still possesses several 
features of interest, including windows, some more modern than 



DUNDRrjI AND ITS CASTLE. 



65 




o s 



01 :~. 






66 PARISH OF TANEY. 



others, passages and small chambers constructed in the thickness of 
the walls, a garderobc, and fireplaces, one of these being of remark- 
ably large size (l). 

The names Dundruni and Taney denoted in the century 
immediately succeeding the Anglo-Norman conquest separate and 
distinct lands, those of Dundrum being the property of lay owners, 
and those of Taney, now represented by the modern townlands of 
ChuiThtown, being the property of the Church. After the Con- 
quest the lands of Dundrum and Taney were assigned to the family 
of de Clahull — a family whose possessions extended to' Kerry, where 
its members ultimately settled — and at the beginning of the thir- 
teenth century Sir John de Clahull, who was Marshal of the Lord- 
ship of Leinster, was the owner. To his generosity and piety the 
Church, vinder a grant from him to the Priory of the Holy Trinity 
and the Archbishop of Dublin, owed the lands of Taney, to some 
portion of which the Priory appears to have had previously a claim 
under a grant from an Irish chieftain called by the Norman scribe 
Marmacrudin, and these lands afterwards became solely vested in 
the Archbishop, and were included in his manor of St. Sepulchre. 
The lands of Dundrum were constituted a manor in themselves, with 
all rights and privileges appertaining thereto, and under Sir John 
de Clahull's successor, Sir Hugh de Clahull, were farmed by free 
tenants, including John de Roebuck, David Basset, and Elye, 
Geoffrey, and Neininus de Dundrum, excepting some portion of the 
lands with a tenement, which was part of the jointure of Sir Hugh 
de Clahull's wife, the Lady Nichola. From Sir Hugh de Clahull 
the manor of Dundrum, after passing through the hands of his son- 
in-law, Sir Walter Purcell, who held judicial office, and of Hugh de 
Tachmun, Bishop of Meath, came about 1268 into the possession of 
Sir Robert Bagod of Baggotrath. 

The lands of Dundrum were similarly situated to those of Car- 
rickmines, on the very extremity of the lands to the south of 
Dublin, afterwards enclosed within the Pale, and suffered severely 
by the raids of the Ii^ish enemies of the Crown. At the beginning 
of the fourteenth century, when the invasion of Edward Bruce took 
place, a state of utter lawlessness prevailed, and the lands lying 
between Dundrum and Dublin, then composing the manor of St. 
Sepulchre, were completely devastated. On the lands of Farran- 
boley, near Milltown, then part of that manor, the native L'ish, 



(') " The Lesser Castles of the County Dnl)Iiii/' hv E. R. M'C. Dix, in The Irish 
Builder for 1897, pp. 227, 236. 



DUNDRUM AND ITS CASTLE. 67 

who had become serfs under the episcopal owner, and who had to 
submit to depredations from settlers like the Walshes, the Harolds, 
and the Archbolds, as well as from their own countrymen, were 
driven off, and the Archbishop of Dublin was subsequently forced 
to lease these lands, together with the adjoining lands of Taney, or 
Churchtown, at a reduced profit to free tenants, amongst whom 
were Edmund Hackett, Richard Chamberlain, and John Locumbe. 

It was at this time that the Fitzwilliams appear as resident on 
the lands of Dundrum. which had, doubtless, undergone a similar 
experience to that of the lands within the manor of St. Sepulchre. 
Their coming there was probably clue tO' that great ecclesiastical 
statesman, Alexander de Bicknor, then Archbishop of Dublin, 
into whose jaossession the manor of Dundrum, after it had been 
transferred from the Bagods to Sir Eustace de la Poer in exchange 
for lands in Limerick, had passed, and to whom the Fitzwilliams 
must have been known as residents near his gi'eat feudal castle at 
Swords, where they had been previously settled. At Dundrum the 
Fitzwilliams erected a castle, probably similar to one which a suc- 
cessor of John Locumbe undertook to build on the lands of Church- 
town, described as a sufficient stone house, walled and battlemented, 
eighteen feet in breadth by twenty-six feet in length within the 
walls, and forty feet in height, and in addition to the lands of Dun- 
drum they acquired those of Ballinteer, anciently called Cheevers- 
town, from a family of that name. Although another member of 
the Fitzwilliam family, Thomas Fitzwilliam, is mentioned as beinff 
in possession in 133 '2 of lands near Dundrum, the first of the name 
in possession of the manor of Dundi'um was William, son of Richard 
Fitzwilliam, to whom in 1365 a conveyance of the manor was made, 
and who had rendered a few j^ears before valiant sem'ice against the 
O'Byrncs and O'Toolcs at Saggard in rescuing, after a battle in 
which five of the enemy were killed, prey which those tribes had 
carried off. William Fitzwilliam was succeeded by his son, John 
Fitzwilliam, and John Fitzwilliam by his son, William Fitzwilliam, 
who man-icd Ismaia, daughter of Sir Edward Ferrers, of Baggofc- 
rath, and who has been already mentioned in connection with the 
assault on that castle, in which Chief Baron Cornwalsh lost his 
life (1). 



(') " The Xornian Rcttloiiionl in Lcinsior," and " Noticos of llic Manor of S(. 
ScpMlclirc in llio Fourteonlli rciiliiiv." I)y James Mill.'* in Jminuil. U.S. A. I., vol. 
.\.\iv., p. KIT, vol. xix.. l)i>. :!l, ll'.t: Cliiist C'liuicli Deeds, C. :{(;i : I'lea, ^reiiic- 
r.inda, and Jnstieiarv Rolls ; I'afenI liclls. py). 4K. (;f;. 15:5 : (Sdendarof llie Lii)er 
.Vi^'cr, Iiy T'rofessor C. T. Stokes in J.R.S.A.L, vol. .x.xiii., p. 'M)7y. l)'.\l(on"s Jlislory 
of the Count V Dnl.lin, p. HI2. 

F 2 



68 PARISH OF TANEY. 



The last named Williain Fitzwiliiaiu was a person of impor- 
tance ; he had a crowd of retainers who resided together with the 
tradesmen of Dundruiu, the tailor and the cloth di-esser, in the 
village under the protection of his castle, and he served for some- 
time as sheriflp of the metropolitan county. His eldest son, Thomas 
Fitzwilliam, who married Rosia, daughter of Sir John Bellew, pre- 
deceased him, and on his death about 1452 he was succeeded by 
Thomas Fitzwilliam's son, Richard Fitzwilliam, who married 
Margery Holy wood, and who was succeeded about 1465 in his turn 
by his son, Thonias Fitzwilliam, husband of Eleanor Dowdall, of 
whom we have seen, both under Mcrrion and Baggotrath. 

After transferring the seat of their branch of the family first tO' 
Baggotrath, and subsequently to Merrion, the Fitzwilliams of Dun- 
drum appear to have allowed the Castle of Dundrum to fall into 
disrepair. It was, however, rebuilt by Richard, son and successor 
of Sir Thomas Fitzwilliam, who in his will made in 1596 desires 
that all his tenants dwelling at Dundrum at the time of his building 
there and giving him assistance should be forgiven the rents due 
after h'is death. One of his younger sons, William Fitzwilliam, 
who married the widow of Primate Henry Ussher, subsequently 
resided in the castle, and there in 1616, on his death-bed, he declared 
his will by word of mouth, leaving '' all he was worth in this world " 
to his wife and infant daughter. At the time of the outbreak of 
the Rebellion in October, 1641, it was the residence of a nephew 
and namesake of its former occupant, Lieutenant-Colonel William 
Fitzwilliam, the younger son of the fii-st Viscount Fitzwilliam, and 
afterwards holder of the titles as the third Viscount, but was taken 
possession of by the rebels, who were driven out of it by a body 
of troops in the following January. Lieutenant-Colonel Fitzwilliam 
with his family afterwards returned to live there, but found him- 
self a sufferer from pillage on the part of the English soldiers. To 
defend himself from the latter he obtained in 1646 from the Duke 
of Onnonde a protection for his house, his lands, and goods, as well 
as for his family and servants, but a few weeks after he had received 
it he accompanied his father into neutral quarters. 

During the period of the Rebellion Dundrum was a centre of 
disaffectioii. A resident at Churchtown, Richard Leech by name, 
who, although one of the churchwardens of the parish, is stated to 
have been a Roman Catholic, was murdered by the rebels there, 
and at the time Lieutenant-Colonel Fitzwilliam obtained protection 
for his property from the English soldiers, a travelling clothier, 
called Robert Turner, as he was coming through Old Rathmines, 



UunDrum and its Castle. 69 

then the high road from Dublin to Dimdrum, was robbed by one, 
Donagh Cahere, of the latter place. In a letter to Cahere, the 
Duke of Ormonde states that he has been informed that Cahere, 
with his nephew and thirteen horse and foot, had taken Turner 
prisoner, and had seized his horses, bridles, saddles, pistols, and a 
quantity of cloth, and. after warning Cahere that if any harm befel 
Turner, whom Cahere had threatened to hang unless a ransom was 
paid, twenty Irish, then m the Duke's custody, should suffer for 
it, demands that Turner, with all his goods, sh(nild be delivered up 
safely (i). 

The Castle of Dundvum during these troublous times fell into 
disrepair, but was restored by Lieutenant-Colonel Isaac Dobson, 
one of the officers of the Parliament Army, to whom it was leased 
in 1653, together with the lands of Dundrum and part of those of 
Kilmacud and Balally. by the Parliament. It is described shortly 
afterwards as being a slated castle in good repair, with three 
hearths, and having attached to it a barn and a garden. At the 
time of the Restoration, Dundrum is returned as containing four- 
teen persons of English and thirty-three of Irish extraction, 
inhabiting twenty-three houses, but on the neighbouring lands the 
population was very small. On the lands of Churchtown, which 
were then he'd by Sir William Ussher the younger, of Donnybrook, 
and by a Mr. Owen Jones, there were two English and five Irish 
inhabitants, only two of whom paid hearth tax, and in the moun- 
tainous district of Ticknock there were fifteen inhabitants with 
only four houses paying tax (-). 

Lieutenant-Colonel Dobson was a leading man amongst the rulers 
of Ireland under the Commonwealth. He was one of those who 
took evidence against the participators in the Rebellion, and was 
also a Commissioner for Revenue and Transplantation, for the Civil 
Survey of Ireland, and for the letting of lands. In recognition of 
his position he was admitted to the freedom of Dublin by special 
gi'ace on payment of a pair of gloves to the Mayoress. After the 
Restoration he came to terms with the Fitzwilliams, on their 
regaining possession of their pi'operty, and continued to occupy the 
castle, with a short int( rval during James II. 's rule (3), when ho 



(1) Memorarula Rolls ; Will of William Fit/.williani of Diindnun : Ball Wrifrht's 
" Usslicr ^IcDioirs," p. 40; Dopositions cf 1(141 (.lohii lliL'i.'iiis()ii of Kathfarn- 
hani) ; Lfltor of Robort Bysso, MS. F. 3, 11, in Triiiitv CdIIcl'i' Lihrary ; Diocesan 
Records; Carte Papers, vol. .\i.\., f. '>]2, vol. clxiv., fT. •J'.IT. 'VM. 

(*) Crown l!cntal ; Fleet wofKl's Survey ; ll(;iitli Mdiny itull; Census of IG.W ; 
Siibsifly Rolls. 

(■') See an aeennnt of a fin<l of James II. 's brass nioiicy at Kinuslewii, near 
Bundniin, bv Hie late Dr. Wiiliani Fia/cr in Jo^irmd, I!. S.A.I., vol .xxiii.. p. \M. 



70 



PARISH OF TANEY. 



sought safety beyond the seas, until his death. This took place at 
Dundruui in 1700, when he had attained a patriarchal age, and he 
passed away surrounded by his children, grandchildren, and great 
grandchildren. His only surviving son. Alderman Eliphal Dobson, 
the most wealthy Dublin jiublisher and bookseller of his day, suc- 
ceeded to the occupation of the castle. Like his father, he was a 
Nonconformist, a member of the congregation worshipping at New 
Row, in Dublin, but we are told that " he valued no man for his 
starched looks or supercilious gravity, or for being a Churchman, 
Presbyterian or Independent, jDrovided he was sound in the main 
points wherein all good men are agreed." He had the misfortune 
to lose one of his legs, and was remarkable for the possession of a 




- Dundrum Castle in 1802. 

From a Plate in '" The Literary and Masonic Magazine," 



wooden substitute, which creaked horribly. The first Bible printed 
in Ireland was one which bears his name in the imprint, and in his 
will he bequeaths to Trinity College near Dublin one of the best 
folio Bibles printed by him to be preserved in the Library, as well as 
a legacy of ten pounds to buy other books. 

The castle grounds in his time were greatly improved, and the 
castle must have presented quite an attractive appearance standing 
in a flower garden laid out with trim box borders and neatly-cut 
yew trees, with a pleasure ground and kitchen garden adjacent, all 
of these being surrounded by a grove of ash trees and sloping down 
to the river, which then was a more picturesque object than it is in 



tlUNDRUM AND ITS CASTLE. 71 

the present day. As the owner of the surrounding lands, Alderman 
Dobson was an important person, and, as one who could afford such 
luxuries as well-furnislicd houses, jDlate, books, horses and carriages, 
was regarded, no doubt, w-ith great awe by the villagers as he jn-o- 
ceeded to and from the castle in his heavy cumbersome coach. The 
castle and grounds were left by Alderman Dobson (who w-as buried 
on St. Patrick's Day, 1720, in St. Werburgh's Church, Dublin), to 
his widow, with remainder to his eldest son, Isaac Dobson, of whom 
we have seen under Donnybrook, and after her death they were 
leased by Isaac Dobson to " an eminent silk weaver and a man of 
unspotted character,'' Thomas Reynolds, whose descendant and 
namesake bore an infamous part in the Rebellion of 1798. Al- 
though the castle was partly inhabited until the close of the 
eighteenth century, it was gradually falling into decay, and Austin 
Cooper, who visited it in 1780, found it in possession of an owner 
whose object was profit rather than beauty, and who was then 
cutting down the grove of ash trees. Several sketches of the castle 
were made by Gabriel Beranger, who describes it as having been 
very picturesque, with a grand entrance by stone stairs from the 
courtyard (i). 

The principal resident at Dundrum in the latter half of the 
eighteenth century was the brother of the first Earl of Lanes- 
borough, the Hon. John Butler, M.P. for Newcastle, who resided in 
Wickham, then called Primrose Hill. During his representation 
of Newcastle, which extended over a period of forty years, he dis- 
l^layed a most zealous attachment to the King's govermnent and 
person, and received on more than one occasion the thanks of public 
bodies for his efforts in the public weal. His death took place at 
Dundrum in the year 1790, when he had attained the age of eighty- 
three years, and Wickham passed from his family into the possession 
of Mr. John White, a barrister of eminence, whose claim to a 
baronetcy led to his being sometimes styled Sir John White, and 
was subsequently the residence successively of the late Sir Robert 
Kane and of the late Sir Edward II udson-Kinahan. In the middle 
f)f the eighteenth cenluiy, in 1766, t' ere were only seven residents 



(M Tranmclions oj Royal Irish Acadcwi/, A., vol. xxiv., |>|i. »•'.. I|(» : 1 Uli l!i'i)ort 
(if tlic Deputy Kcf))(>r of the liccorfls in TrclaiHl. App.. p. 44 ; Depositions of Kill ; 
Cill.crt's "Ancient lleernls of Diihlin." vol. iv., ]). 'Jfi ; King's "State of the I'lO- 
t(stanls of Ireland nixler Jiinies il.,"p. :5.">:{ ; Wills of (lie Dobson family; 
(Albert's " Hi.storv of Dublin," vol. i.. p. KJ ; AhuMen's " liistoi y of Irisli IVriod- 
ical Literature," vol. i., p. 171 ; Jliijzlies' " History of St. \Verbur<;h's," p. 1'2G ; 
" Dundrum Castle and its owners," in tlie Irinh liuildcr for 1897, )). Kl'2 ; Leases 
in Hej:istrv of Deeds Ofliee ; Ph(\s OrrurrvnceH, vol. Hi.. No. 17 ; .Seward's '' Tope 
graiiliieii. Hibernif ;e " ; Cooper's .Vote Book; Wilde's "Memoir v.i Cabriel IVr- 
anger " ; " i^ite of Thomas Reynolds." 



n 



PARISH OF TANEY. 



besides Mr. Butler of importance in the wliolei j)arisli of Taney, 
namely, Lord Fitzwilliam, at Mount Merrion; Anthony Foster, 
afterwards Chief Baron of the Exchequer, at Mervillc; Hugh Car- 
michael, Dudley Rogers, James Crowe, John Hunt, and Richard 
Thwaites, and the total number of dwellings was only sixty-six. 
Amongst the other inhabitants we find names which arc still 
familiar, including those of Moulds, Messit, and Rinklc (i). 

Dundrum was then a small village chiefly remarkable for being 
on the high road to Powerscourt. It had a reputation, though not 
in an equal degree with Carrickmines, as a health resort- a rcjjuta- 
tion which it regained at the beginning of the nineteenth century — 
and lodgings where goats' milk could be obtained were advertised. 
Some of the deaths announced as taking place at Dundrum are 
possibly those of persons who sought benefit from the mild climate; 
amongst these we find, in 1756, the wife of Anthony Perry, master 
of Lucas's Coffee House; in 1757, Lieutenant John Kcllie, of Lord 
George Forbes' Regiment of Foot; in 1760, Mr. Williani Litton, a 
silk weaver; and in 1771, the wife of Mr. Shea, a linen draper. 
Some years later in 1787 the discovery of a mineral spring near 
Ticknock was announced, but, in spite of a strong recommendation 
of its efficacious qualities, it had only a short-lived popularity. A 
few houses near the old churchyard formed a separate village known 
as Churchtown, and the only other neighbouring village of any 
importance was Windy Arbour, on the road to Dublin, where there 
was a lodging house in which the first Lord Cloncurry stayed in 
early life (2). 

The lawless and defenceless state of the vicinity of Dublin is 
indicated by more than one outrage near Dundrum. A house at 
Churchtown was in 1780 broken into by four masked robbers armed 
with swords and pistols ; a gentleman returning on horseback from 
the fair at Donnybrook was in 1788 stopped near the castle by two 
highwaymen ; a coffin containing the body of a man supposed to 
have been murdered was in 1790 left on a false pretext with the 
grave-digger; the house of Mr. Valentine Dunne, whose business 
premises were in Castle Street, Dublin, was in 1798 broken into 



(M Pue''s Occurrences, vol. xl., Xo. 85; vol. Iviii.. No. 8r$ : vol. lix.. No. 97; 
vol. Ixi., No. 6270; Exslian^s Magazine for 1790, p. .56; Ball and Hamilton's 
"Parish of Tanev." pp. 152, 176; Religious Returns of 1766; Anthologia Hiber- 
vicn vol. i., p. 32.?. 

("-) Lewis's " Guide to Dublin," pp. 104, 129 ; Ball and Hamilton's " Parish of 
Tanev," p. 210 ; Piir's Occurrences, vol. liii.. No. 70, vol. liv.. No. 66 ; vol. ivii.. 
No. 36 : vol. Ixvi.. No. 6790 ; vol. Ixviii., No. 7051 : Duhfin Chronicle. 17S7-1788, 
]) 424 ; FitzPatriclc's " Life of Lord rioncurry," p. 37. 



DUNDRUM AND ITS CASTLE BALALLY. 



and plundered; and a fanner called Eunis in the same year of 
rebellion was forced to leave his house near the Three Rock Moun- 
tain after it had been three times robbed (i). 

Towards the close of the eighteenth century Duudrum was the 
home of Mr. John G-iffard, who took a prominent part in the poli- 
tical affairs of his time as a strong supporter of the Union, and who 
has the distinction of being the grandfather of the present Lord 
Chancellor of England, the Earl of Ilalsbury. There Mr. Giffard's 
sons, Sir Ambrose Hardinge Giffard, Chief Justice of Ceylon, and 
Stanley Lees Giffard, many years editor of TJie Standard, and father 
of Lord Halsbury, passed their early life. At Churchtown the 
Hon. William Tankerville Chamberlaine, a Justice of the Kind's 
Bench, one of the most eminent members of the judiciary of his 
day, and Mr. Edward Mayne, who subsequently became a judge of 
the same court, were at that time residing, and amongst other 
inhabitants in the immediate vicinity of Dundrum were Mr. 
Stephen Stock, a brother of the Bishop of that name, and a man 
of exemplary charity ; Mr. Daniel Kinahan, ancestor of a family 
still identified with the parish ; and Alderman Nathaniel Hone, 
sometime Lord Mayor of Dublin (~). 



BALALLY 



These lands, which lie between those of Dundrum and the parish of 
Kilgobbin, were the site of a castle, and of a church, remains of 
which were until recently to be seen in the gi'ounds of Moreen. In 
the opinion of the late Professor Stokes the name is a derivation of 
Irish words meaning the town of Olave, a famous Danish saint, and 
had its origin in a Danish settlement represented afterwards by the 
Harolds, a clan rivalling the Walshes in the extent of their moun- 
tain lands. A tradition existed in the neighbourhood a century ago 
that the church had been erected by two families which had engaged 
in despex'ate conflict near its site, and which had agreed, on their 
revenge being satiated, to erect a church there, known a hundred 
years ago as the Cross Church of Moreen. 



r') Ilihrrnia)} Mnqazivr for 1 7S0. p. 118, nml 1 TOS. p. 732: Diihlin Chronicle, 
178H-17H9, p. 42:{ ; Mall and Ilairiilton's " P.uisli of Tanoy," p. 215. 

(») Ball ami Hamilton's "Parish ot 'I'MiKy," ),p. Ki:?, 112. 120, i:{(», I |;{. 



74 PARISH OF TANEY. 



The lands of Balally were given in 1279 to John de Walhope, an 
old and valued servant of the Crown, and twenty years later 
were in the occupation of John Othyr. After having been, 
about 1334, in the possession of Maurice Howell and Gregoiy 
Taunton, already mentioned as tenants to the Priory of the Holy 
Trinity for the lands of Cabinteely and Brenanstown, the lands of 
Balally came into the possession of the Walshes of Carrickmines. 
Like other lands bordering on the mountains, those of Balally 
suffered much from " wars and casualties of fortune,'" and in a grant 
from the Crown in 1407 to William Walsh it was conditioned that 
he should build a small castle upon them. Although a considerable 
time elapsed before its completion, this castle was ultimately 
erected, and became the residence of a branch of the Walsh family. 
In 1546 Thomas Walsh, who was then in jDossession of thi*ee houses 
and eighty-one acres in Balally, besides the castle, died there, 
and was succeeded by his son, John, then a minor; in 1597 William 
Walsh was in possession, and in 1 64 T James Walsh was seized of the 
castle and lands, as well as of those of Edmondstown, near Rath- 
farnham (i). 

The Walshes of Balally, as adherents of the Roman Catholic 
Church, had its services regularly performed, possibly in the 
ancient church, and in 1630 the Rev. John Cahill, mentioned as 
parish priest of Donnybrook, was commonly the celebrant. After 
James Walsh's death in 1646 his son, Henry, disposed of Balally 
for £700 to Mr. John Borr, of Dublin, but during the Common- 
wealth, when there was a population of seven persons of English 
and eleven of Irish descent inhabiting eight houses, the Parliament 
seized upon the lands and leased them to Lieutenant-Colonel Isaac 
Dobson, of Dundrum. After the Restoration Mr. John Borr was 
successful in establishing his right to the lands before the Com- 
missioners of Settlement, and subsequently occupied the castle, 
which contained three hearths, as his country residence. He was 
the son of Christian Borr, a naturalised German, who, having come 
to Ireland early in the seventeenth century, had amassed a large 
fortune as a merchant, trading principally in the export of beef 
and import of corn, wine, and salt, and in whose will piety and 
business are quaintly mingled in the direction that his body should 
be buried in " a comely but not costly manner " near his jdcw door 
in St. Kevin's Church, Dublin, and in closing a long list of debtors 



(1) Ball and Hamilton's "Parish of Taney," p. 14; Post Chaise Companion; 
Plea Rolls ; Sweetman's Calendar ; Patent Rolls, pp. 30, 249 ; Exchequer In- 
quisition, Henry VIII., No. 191 ; Fleetwood's Survey. 



BALALLY — ROEBUCK. 75 



with the prayer that Providence may direct them to discharge their 
considerations. Mr. John Borr, who built a great house known as 
'' Borr's Court/' near Christ Church Cathedral, added to the wealth 
which he had inherited from his father, and his son, Mr. Christian 
Borr, father of several sons who met with sad and untimely ends, 
occupied a good social position in Dublin (i). 

In the latter part of the eighteenth century the villas which 
border the high road through Balally began to be erected. 
Moreen, then described as a neat, compact house, was built, and its 
grounds laid out with much trouble and expense on the rocky 
land, by Mr. William M"Kay, a legal official, whose descendants are 
still recollected for their prowess in the hunting field in days when 
hares and foxes abounded in the wilds of Carrickmines and Foxrock, 
Amongst other residents were Mr. Faithful William Fortescue, 
M.P. for Monaghan ; Mr. Robert Turbett, ancestor of the family 
still identified with Dundrum ; and Mr. William Ridgeway, au 
eminent lawyer, whose name will be found as counsel for the Crown 
in many of the leading prosecutions of the period, joarticularly in 
that of Robert Emmet, and whose reports of cases are still of value 
to lawyers (-). 



ROEBUCK 



The lands of Roebuck, or Rabo, as they were anciently called, 
which lie between Donnybrook and Dundrum, were the site of a 
castle, which stood from very early times on the ground now 
occupii'd by the modern Roebuck Castle, the handsome seat of Mr. 
Francis Vandeleur Westby, D.L. 

Soon after the Anglo-Norman Conquest tho lands, which were 
originally of greater extent than at present, became a manor with 
a chief residence, and at the beginning of the fourteenth century 
permission was given to the owner to keep game in his demesne on 
them. They wei-e then est iinat cd to contain three carucates, valued 
at £9, being at the I'ate of ('>'/. an aero, and (lie owner had sixty 



(') Anlihislmp P.iilkclcy's I!(|><.rl. p. I tS ; Kolls of rnnoccntH ; Census of Kk")!); 
frown Rental Hcatlli Money Jioll ; I'alcnl llolls, vol. i., p. IWC, ; Wills of tlie How 
faiiiilv; fillterl'^^ "Hisfrxy of Dublin," vol. !., ]). •_>:{«; "Sonic Notes on Ual- 
ally," in tlie Irish /l„i/'hr'\nr ISIIS, p. II. 

r^) Ball ati'l ll;iniillnii's " Parish of Taney," pp. Ill, ^■U. 140, IIS; " Dicljoii- 
ary of National I'Ao^rdphy,'" (tor Ki<lgeuay'), vol. xlviii., p. "JSI. 



PARISH OF TANEY. 










0^ i 



Oh 



Q 



ROEBUCK. 77 



acres under corn and twelve plough teams. Clonskeagh, or the 
meadow of the white thorn hushes, now a village on the Dodder 
known for its iron works, is mentioned in 1316 as belonging to the 
owners of Roebuck, and then contained a mill. By Plenry II. the 
lands of Roebuck were granted, together wath the somewhat distant 
manor of Cruagh, to Thomas de St. Michael, and after passing 
through the hands of David Basset, a member of a gi'eat Norman 
family, came in 1261 into the possession of Fromund le Brun, 
then Chancellor of Ireland, from whom they descended to Sir 
Nigel le Brun, who was given in 1304 the right of free warren. 
Under these owners the lands were held by a family which took its 
cognomen from the place, and a member of which, Otho de Rabo, 
acted as bailiff in legal proceedings for Sir Nigel le Brun. 

The succession of owners for the next two centuries is almost 
complete. In 1315 Fromund, son of Sir Nigel le Brun, was in 
possession ; in 1377 Sir Thomas, son of Sir Fromund le Brun ; in 
1382 Francis, son of Sir Thomas le Brun; and in 1420 Sir John, 
son of Francis le Brun. Sir John le Brun had two sons, 
Christopher and Richard ; Christopher died before his father, 
leaving two children, a son, Christopher, who died shortly after 
his grandfather, and a daughter, Elizabeth. For a time the lands 
appeal' to have been in possession of Sir John's second son, Richard 
lo Brun, Ijut ultimately they became vested in his granddaughter, 
Elizabeth, and by her marriage to Robert Barnewall, first Baron of 
Trimlestown, passed into possession of the latter family, which 
cniitinned to own Roebuck until the beginning of the nineteenth 
century (i). 

It has been stated that the Castle of Roel)Uck, now partly 
incorporated in the modei'ii house, was the residence of John, third 
Baron of Trimlestown, who was Chancellor of Ivi'land in the reign 
of Henry VIII., but it seems probable that it owed its construction 
to Robert, fiflh Baron of Ti'inilestown- " a rare nobleman, <>nd(nved 
with sundrv good gifts " whose initials, with those of his wife, 
Anne Fyan, it bore. During the rebellion of 1641 the castle, then 
in possession of Matthew, eighth Baron Trimlestown, who served as 
an officer in the Confederate Army, was destroyed, and in the time 
of the Coniiiioiiwcalt h the lands and niaiioi- of Roebuck, together 
with CMonskeagh and a mill, woe held hv one Edwai'd Bariy. whom 
Coloiii I .XilliiT Mill sought to dis])ossess. The piincipal occn))ant 
of till' l.ind^.it lliat time was 1\I r. William N'allv s.-iid to ha\'(' been 

(') "" 'J'lic .Xoriiiaii Scltlcimiit in l^cinstcr-,' liy Jaiiics .Mills in .loiuiiii/, Ji'.S..i.f.. 
vol. xxiv., p. 1()7; I'loa Jii.slifiary and Minmranda Roils ; Swcctnian's Calendar; 
Burke's Peerage inidcr- I'rinilc-low n. 



78 PARISH OF TANEY. 



an ancestor of the notorious Leonard MacNally, the lawyer^ — whose 
death in 1669 is recorded on one of the oldest tombstones in Donny- 
brook Churchyard. In 1652 Nally was ordered to attend a peram- 
bulation of lands in the neighbourhood of Dublin taken under the 
protection of the Commonwealth, and in 1664 he was occupying a 
house rated as containing two* hearths, which was probably portion 
of the castle. Besides the lands of Roebuck, Nally held, under the 
Fitzwilliams, the adjoining lands of Owenstown, now forming part 
of Mount Merrion. The population of Roebuck and Owenstown is 
returned about that time as seven persons of English and forty- 
two persons of Irish extraction (i). 

The castle was in a ruinous condition in the eighteenth 
century, which renders it improbable that James II. lodged there, 
as has been stated, after his arrival in 1689 in Ireland. Austin 
Cooper, on visiting it in 1781, found only a small portion roofed, 
which was used as a storehouse by a farmer who resided in ai small 
house close by. In Cooper's opinion the castle was originally a 
large one, forming two sides of a square, and upon it, he mentions, 
were engi^aved in stone^ thei arms of the Barnewalls, as well as the 
letters R. B. A. F. and the name Robert. At the beginning of that 
century a bleach yard existed on the lands of Roebuck as well as 
mills at Clonskeagh, and advertisements appeared front time to 
time of the castle farm as affording excellent accommodation for a 
dairyman, proposals for which were to be made to Lord Trimles- 
town at his seat near Trim or at his Dublin house in Maiy Street. 
The Dublin Volunteers in 1784 selected Roebuck as one of thedr 
camping grounds, and in 1789, when there was a great uproar about 
an attempt to close the footpath from Milltown to Clonskeagh, the 
vicinity of Roebuck Castle was chosen as a retired jDlace to fight a 
duel, which was happily amicably adjusted, not, however, before 
shots had been exchanged (2). 

Of the country seats which adorn the neighbourhood, the first 
in date was Merville, in Foster's Avenue, now the residence of 
Mr. J. Hume Dudgeon. This fine old house, which forms three 
sides of a square, and has out-offices of a most extensive kind, was 



(i) D' Alton's " History of the County Dublin," p. 809 ; Burke's Peerage under 
Trinilestown ; Fleetwood's Survey ; Crown Rental ; " Loftus's Court Martial 
Book," preserved in Marsh's Library ; Slacker's Sketches, pp. 90, 197, 434 ; 
Hearth Money Roll ; Census of 1659. 

{■"-) D' Alton's "History of the County Dublin," p. 810; Cooper's Note Book; 
Leases in Registry of Deeds Oftice ; Puc's Occurrences, vol. xxxvi.. No. 31 ; vol. 
xxxix.. No. 56 ; bublin Journal, Nos. 1846, 1851, 6845 ; Dublin Chronicle, 1789- 
1790, pp. 120, 295. 



ROEBUCK. 79 



built about the middle of the eighteenth century by the Right Hon. 
Anthony Foster, Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer, and father of 
the last Speaker of the Irish House of Commons, whose connection 
■with the place is commemorated in the name of the magnificent 
avenue in which it stands. Chief Baron Foster, whose ability and 
.social gifts in early life attracted the attention of that acute 
observer, Mrs. Delany, was one of the first persons of position in 
Ireland to interest himself in a practical manner in the improve- 
ment of agriculture and in the development of her industries. He 
has been styled by Arthur Young, who visited him on his estate at 
Collon in the County Louth, where his operations exceeded any- 
thing Young could have imagined, as a prince of improvers, but 
few would dare to put in practice his theory that raising x'ents 
tended to improve the condition of the tenantry by quickening 
their industry, setting them to search for manures, and making 
them better farmers. While a practising barrister, when he 
occupied a seat in Parliament, first as member for the borough of 
Dunlcer and afterwards for the County Louth, Foster rendered ser- 
vices to the linen manufacture by amending the laws affecting it. 
For this he was rewarded by the presentation of an address in a gold 
box and a magnificent piece of plate. He manifested throughout 
his life the utmost intei'est in the trade of Ulster. 

After his death in 1778 his son, the Speaker, occupied Merville 
for some years, but ultimately sold it to Sir Thomas Lighton, on 
whom a baronetcy, still held by his descendant, was conferred. Sir 
Thomas Lighton, who is buried in Taney graveyard, had in early 
life a career of extraordinary adventure in India, which resulted in 
his making a large fortune, and after returning to his native land, 
he settled down in Dublin as a banker, and obtained a seat in Par- 
liament, first as a member for Tuam and afterwards for Carling- 
ford. He was succeeded soon after his death in 1805, at Merville, 
then said to have one of the best gardens in Ireland, by the Right 
Hon. William Baron Downes, Chief Justice of the King's Bench, a 
lawyer of the first distinction, and a great friend of Judge Chambcr- 
laiiio, already iiKMitioncd as a resident at Dundrum, with whom he 
was buried bv his own desire in Si. Ann's Chin-ch, Diiblin. 
Subsequently Merville passed into the possession of Licutcnant- 
General Heniy Hall, C.B., a distinguished Indian military ofTu'cr 
and ndiiiinisfrator (1). 



(') l-tclitrioiis l-tcfiirns nt' IT'l'i: " .\utnl)i<i;.'iM|)li\' and ('niicspDnilcucc nf .Mai\' 
(inuivillr', Mrs. Dchiiiy," vol. ii., \>. :{•">:{ : vol. iii., |) HiO; Voimu's " Tour in rrcliiid.' 
idilcd l)V A. \V. Iliitloii, vol. i.. |). IK); /'^.rs/niivs M'lr/iir.inr for 17<>1, p. :{!).">, iiiid 
I7(i.">, p. I"2(j; Lcasos in licj^i-lrv of Deeds Ofliee ; liidl and llaniiltotrs " l'a?isii 
of Taney," pp. 27, 12"), KW, 17l{, 22IJ ; London's " Kncvelopedia of CJaideniiig," 
J.on.,' ls:!n, pp. 88, 10!)5; i'.iaeker'H .Sketches, pi-. '•»!, li'-'. :{l!). 



80 PARISH OF TANEY. 



Other villas began tO' be built towards the close of the eighteenth 
century, and amongst their first occupants were Alderman John 
Exshaw, publisher of the magazine called by his name, whose 
mayoralty was attended with much splendour, and who covered 
himself with military glory du}-ing the Rebellion ; James Potts, the 
proprietor of Saunder's News Letter, who resided at Richview, and 
had an encounter with Mr. John Giffard, the owner of a rival 
organ, outside the door of Taney Church ; INIr. Alexander Jaffray, 
one of the first directors of the Bank of Ireland ; Dr. Robert 
Emmet, father of Thomas Addis Emmet and Robert Emmet, who 
resided at Casino; and Mr. Henry Jackson, who started the iron 
works at Clonskeagh, and had to flee from Ii^eland on account of his 
complicity in the Rebellion. Before the close of that century the 
Castle of Roebuck was rebuilt by Thomas, thirteenth Baron of 
Trimlestown, and was subsequently occupied successively by Mr. 
James Crofton, an official of the Irish Treasury, and his son, Mr. 
Arthur Burgh Crofton, who were both Commissioners for the con- 
struction of Kingstown Harbour. After the death of the latter the 
castle was taken by Mr. Edward Perceval Westby, D.L., father of 
the present owner, on his marriage to a daughter of the Right Hon. 
Francis Blackburne, sometime Lord Chancellor of Ireland, who 
maintained by a lengthened residence at Roebuck Hall the con- 
nection of Roebuck, begun in the thirteenth century, with the 
holders of the Great Seal (}). 



MOUNT MERR ION. 



Mount Merrion, the Irish seat of the Earl of Pembroke and Mont- 
gomery, can compare in the beauty of its demesne with many of 
the great places in England, and has few rivals in Ireland. Enter- 
ing by the high gates on the road from Dublin to Stillorgan, which 
face the broad avenue from Blackrock, a straight drive with wide 
borders of closely cut grass, and rows of lofty elms on either side, 
leads to the house, which is covered with creepers. Across the 
gravel sweep before the hall door, which faces the south, stand the 
great stables forming three sides of a square, and behind them lie 
the gardens entered through gates -which recall the father of the 



(') Ball and Hamilton's "Parish of Taney," pp. 104, 110, 120, 138, 144, 151, 
155, 175; DuhUn Chronicle (for ExshaM), 1780-1790. pp. 56, 87, 528, 536, 615, 
896; 1790-1791, pp. 128, 528, 



MOUNT MERRION. 



8i 













3 ^ 






3 -< 



Si 



•-a 

s 



82 PARISH OF TANEY. 



pi'esent owner, the lamented Lord Herbert of Lea, whose monogram 
they bear. Beyond the house to the west, across a smooth lawn, is 
a thick wood, intersected with walks and adorned with temples and 
rural structures of various kinds, while through the park stretch 
away two drives, one disused and grass-grown leading under an 
ai-chway of noble trees to Foster's Avenue, and the other, com- 
manding lovely views of Dublin and its bay, leading to Mount 
Anville and Dundrum. A modern front of singularly poor design 
disfigures the original house, which was three storeys in height, 
while the front, as it stands on higher ground, is only of two, but 
through the verdure one sees peeping out tiers of quaint old- 
fashioned windows and a tiny belfry surmounting the western wall. 
In its style of architecture the original house resembled the existing 
stables, which bear the date 1711, and although of small extent it 
contained one or two fine rooms, now divided, with deep window 
seats, curious door frames, and moulded cornices, which show it to 
have been internally a handsome dwelling. 

To Richard, fifth A'iscount Fitzwilliam, who had succeeded in 
1704 his father, Thomas, fourth Viscount Fitzwilliam, the last 
holder of the title mentioned in connection with Merrion Castle, 
the ancient home of the family, Mount Merrion House owed its 
ccnstruction, and the selection of the site, one of the most beautiful 
on his property, indicates that he was not insensible to the charms 
of scenery. The lands had been in the possession of his family from 
the fourteenth century. At the time of the Anglo-Norman In- 
vasion, as has been mentioned in the history of Booterstown, they 
had formed portion of lands called Cnocro, or the Red Hill, which 
were assigned to- Walter de Rideleford, Lord of Bray, but it was 
probably under the name of Owenstown that the greater portion of 
them came into possession of the Fitzwilliams of Dundrum about 
the same time as the latter place. In the sixteenth centuiy the hill 
of Owenstown was selected as the place of assembly for a hosting or 
review of the levies of the Pale, and there, on at least one occasion, 
the proprietors, who held their lands by military tenure, drew out 
their followers in martial array. The fifth Viscount Fitzwilliam, who 
liad found a wife — a daughter of Sir John Shelley, of Michelgrove, in 
Sussex, the family to which the poet Shelley belonged — in England, 
was a man of considerable ability, although of unattractive man- 
ners. He was inspii'ed with an ardent desire to take an active 
part in public life, and with that object, having conformed to the 
Established Church, took his seat in 1710 in the Irish House of 
liords. It was then his intention to make Ireland his home, and 



MOUNT MERRION. 



8B 



as the Castle of i\Ierrioii had become iiniiihabitable, he commenced 
the erecbion of Mount Merrion House as a covintiy seat. From that 
time, for many years, with the exception of one session, he con- 
tinued to attend assiduously in Parliament, and from references to 
him in connection with a rivalry which existed between him and his 
near neighbours, the Aliens of Stillorgan, it is evident that he was 
one of the most prominent of the Irish peers in the politics of his 
day (1). 





■1 "'^ -i^ €h| 


m 


J 




% 


\ 


4> 1 




i 


S. 




\4^ 


.^ 


^V '^ 


' 




Richard, 5th Viscount; Fitzwilliam. Frances, wifefof gth Viscount Fitzwilliam. 

Fnnii Pi)r(r(ill.^ prc.scrirtl ni lite I''it::wil(iaiu Jlusc/uit. 

Amongst Fil/.w-illiam's friends was the learned and godd Arch- 
bishop iif Dublin. William King, and on nioic lii.in one occasion thi> 
Archbishop avaiUd himself of the calm and repose which INbumt 
Merrion afforded for litcraiy woi'k. Al the time of Queen Anne's 
dialli the Ai'chl)isliop was staying there and sei'king relief in tlie 
revifcion of liis book, on 7'//' Innnfini/s nf M t n in the Wars/n/i tif 
(lull, fi-oiii Ihc annoyance t(J which lu- was suljjeclcd as a snpporter 
of I he succession of the llousoof llanovcr, and from his olhci- cues, 
the non residence of the clergy, the want of rlmrchesand of money 



Cj |).\li'.n'- ■ lli-l(;rv III the Cuiinly Itiililin," |i. 70| ; LocIl'c'-; l*ccnii.'c, vol. 
iv., p. ."{lit; ■■ Dictioiiary of .National Hio^rapliy," vi>l. lii., |>. :'.! : " .Auloliio- 
Uiapliy ami CorifspondciKU' of .Mary ( iiaiivillc, .\hs. |)(lany.' \ol. i., p. I'Ol; .loiir- 
iials of till- Irish IIou.su of I.,onls ; ( 'o.xc's " Mciiiniis ot Sir itolicil Walpolc." 

vni. ii., pp. :!.-,!!, :!(;•_' 

G 2 



84 



PARISH OF TANEV. 



to pay incumbents — as in the case of the neighbouring Church of 
Stiilorgan — and, in a less degree, the management of the clioir 
which then served both the I)ul)lin Cathedrals, and gave the Arch- 
bishop and the Deans great ado to keep in (U'der. He was not long 
left undisturbed however, for on the accession of George I. he was 
appointed, with the Earl of Kildare, then staying with his brother- 
in-law. Colonel Allen of Stillorgan, a Lord Justice. One of the 
lirst uses which they made of their power was to obtain the admis- 
sion of their hosts to the Privy Council board, with, in the case of 
Lord Fitzwilliam, the further honour of appointment as Vice- 
Admiral of the Province of Leinster (i). 




Hon. William Fitzwilliam, 2nd son of Richard, 
5th Viscount Fitzwilliam. 

From II Ptirlraii. hi/ Tlioiiins Oniii-sborougJi pnnrrvcd in tlir FifziriUi'iin Museum. 

At Mount Merrion the fifth Viscount Fitzwilliam's children, who 
were baptized in St. Andrew's Church, Dublin, passed their early 
life, and in a large picture preserved there his three sons are 
depicted as boys playing in the grounds. The eldest, Richard, suc- 
ceeded him ; the second, William, who appears to have been a man 
of great social charm, passed his life in London, where he died at 



(1) Plant's "History of the Church of Ireland," vol. ii.. pp. 271 "iTT: Arch- 
l)ishop King's Correspondence preserved in Trinity CoUege Library ; Letter from 
Archbishop King to Dr. Charlett in Ballard Manuscripts (10,794, f. 33), preserved in 
the Bodleian. 



MOUNT MERRION. 85 



the close of the eighteenth century (i) ; and the third, John, who 
made a most exti'aordinary disposition of his property, amounting 
to £100,000, a great part of which ho k^ft to his servant, was a 
distinguished officer, who attained to tlie rank of General, and re- 
presented Windsor for some years in Parliament (-). Besides his 
three sons, the Viscount had two daughters, of whom the elder 
married first, Henry, ninth Earl of Pembroke, an alliance to which 
the Earls of Pembroke owe their Irish estate, and secondly, 
although accounted one of the proudest chimes of quality of her day, 
a commoner. Major North Ludlow Bernard (^) ; and the younger 
Hiarriod George, second Baron Carbery. About the year 172C), 
when as an Irish peer he succeeded in obtaining a seat in the 
English House of Commons as member for Fowey, in Cornwall, the 
fifth Viscount Fitzwilliam went to reside permanently in England, 
probably attracted thither by the wider field for a political life, and 
possibly in some degree infiuenced by his wife's desire to live in 
her own country. In England he became one of the mfdiirdiji' oi 
the Princo of Wales, shortly afterwards to ascend the thrcnie as 
George II., and his family became favourites at Court. His third 
son, John, was appointed a page of honour, and his eldest daughter, 
afterwards the Countess of Pembroke, a maid of honour, in which 
capacity she is mentioned by Lady Hervey in describing ilu> ladies 
of the Court under the guise of books, as a volume neatly bound 
and well worth perusing, called Tin- had if x (jimli or tin Wlm/f A if 
(if JJrt^ss. A few years later Lady Fitzwilliam, who was a Rdmaii 
Catholic, separated from her husband and entered a convent abroad, 
where she remained for twenty years, until after her husband's 
death (-i). 



(') Sec IctttTs tr-din the Umi. William l''itz\\iliiaiii to hllra/.cf l)a\y, Utitish 
Museiiin. A.M. -MS., i'.i.i'tK 11. -22-45. 

(^) See letter's t'loni (icni-ial tlir lluii. .lolin l''it/.\\ illiaiii ami Irttcr fidiii liiiliaiil. 
sixth \'iscmnit Fit/.wiJliaiii (AiU\. .MS., :!-_'.SS<.t. f. L'-i:}) in the .Xeweastie Pa|)cis in 
till- I'.ritish .Miiseimi ; " l.,etters <it lloiacc W'alpole," ( dited by I'eter Cuimiiij^hani, 
vnl. iii., |j. I'li-J; \(|. i\., |). 20.") : " ( '()ircs|Miiitlciicc ol' .lujin. tonr'tli Duke of Hedt'iiid," 
eililtd l)V LmiiI .J(jIiii J'lUsseil, \ ol. ii.. |i. |0(i ; .Maiiiiscripls of .Mfs. h'iaiiklaii(i 
JIusseil A.slley, ])]>. 2')V)-2')H,\1'.)'>. |)iil)lisli(i| liy Historieal .MaMiis(ri|its ( 'oiniuission. 

(•■'J " Ll•tl(•^.-^ of lloraic Walpolc." cilitcil liy I'l'ItT ( 'iimiiipjliaiii, vol. ii., |)|). I SS, 
270; " (_'orres|)oiii|i-n(i> df .lolm. fonilli |)iikcof IliMlfdiil," cilitcd liy Lord.lnlin 
JlnHHcll, vol. ii., |i. |0."». 

(■♦) Ketiirri of .Meirihers of Parliament : Mritisli .Museum. Add, AIS.. :{2.7<>7. f. 
•JKC. : "Letters of Ileiuietta, Countess of Sullolk," vol. i.. |)|i. :fo7. :i22, :!2!t, 
.'{lit. :{7(), vol. ii.. |i|i. !l. is, 2150 ; " .Memoirs of \'iscouritess Suinlon.' Ijy Mrs. 
'I'lioriison, vol. i., |). 107: " Autol)ioj;r'a|>liy and ( 'orrcsiiondcncc of .Mary (Jrari- 
viiie, .Mrs. Delaiiy," vol. i.. pji. 204, oHi; lliihlin .lumiKil, \o. 2,(>77. 



86 PARISH OF TANEY. 



Soon after the fifth Viscount Fitzwilliam had settled, in England 
Mount Merrion House was let to. one of the Barons of the Irish 
Exchequer, the Honorable John Wainwright, a judge who is remark- 
able for having lost his life in discharging his official duties. He 
was an Englishman promoted in 1732 direct from the Bar of that 
country to the Irish Bench. In character he was discerning and 
discreet, with an even temper, attractive nianners, and a most 
tharitablo disposition, and although he was advised to let his 
attempts at English verse cool, he was a scholar of no mean attain- 
ments. His friends included many persons of note in that day — 
Pelham Holies, Duke of Newcastle, whose schoolfellow he had been 
at Westminster School, and in whose correspondence a number of 
letters from Wainwright written in a fine bold hand are preserved ; 
Mrs. Clayton, the confidential friend of Queen Caroline, whom he 
styles his guardian angel ; Bishop Berkeley, whom he thought of 
accompanying to the Bermudas, and by whom the inscription on a 
monument which Wainwright erected in Chester Cathedral to his 
father and grandfather, both Chancellors of that diocese, is com- 
posed ; the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the Duke of Dorset, who 
was very civil and attentive to him ; the Lcnxl Lieutenant's Secre- 
tary, Bubb Dodington, who sought his advice ; the unorthodox 
Bishcjp Clayton, who was his constant companion ; and Dr. Stone, 
afterwards Primate of Ireland, who was another old Westminster 
boy. Not long after his arrival in Ireland Wainwright had narrowly 
escaped being shot in his town h(niso in William Street by a Sheriff's 
officer, and was only sjiared to fail a victim to the famine fever of 
1741, which he contracted while on the spring circuit in the crowded 
courts of Munster, where the pestilence raged with especial severity. 
He was hurried up to Mount Merrion House, but died there a few 
days later, when only fifty-two years of age, his body being taken 
to Chester, where it was received with marks of the most extra- 
ordinary respect, for interment beside his father's in Holy 
Trinity Church (i). 

Almost immediately after Wainwright's death Mount Merrion 
was taken by the Lord Chancellor, Robert Jocelyn, who two years 
later was raised to the joeerage as Baron NewjDort of Newport, in 
the County of Tipperary, a place in which he had acquired consider- 
able property. Of Jocelyn's early history something has been 

(^) Put's Occurrences, vol. xxix., Nos. 48, 71 ; vol. xxx., No. 44 : vol. xxxviii., 
Nos. 30, 31 ; Ihihlin Journal, No. 155; Letters from Baron Wainwright in New- 
castle Papers in British ]\Iuscnin ; Foster's " Alumni Oxonienses '" ; " Memoirs of 
Viscountess Sundon," by I\lrs. Thomson ; Welch's " Scholars of Westminster " ; 
Fraser's " Life of Berkeley," p. 215 ; Ormerod's " History of Cheshire," vol. i.. 
p. 244; "Autobiography and Correspondence of Alary (Jranville. Mrs. Delany," 
vol. i., p. 403 ; "Memoirs of Mrs. Letitia Pilkington,"" vol. i., p. 73. 



MOUNT MERRION. 



87 







*? 




f*^ \ 



4 



^V^ 




.!^s&^ 



fl^ 



'■■'^w9^'-.."W 












;i. 



t 



■ r'^-a 










i 



^ 



3 

c -5 

o 






"o "S 



** - — 1 









(V-' ' 



88 



PARISH OF TANEY. 



already told in connection with his residence at Donnybrook. For 
seventeen years he occupied the woolsack, earning amongst his con- 
temporaries the reputation of being a great and good Chancellor. 
During the protracted absences of the Lords Lieutenants Jocelyn 
acted invariably as one of the Lord Justices, who, owing to the difii- 
culty of communication, were the real rulers of Ireland while in 
office, and were treated with all the state and ceremony accorded to 
the Viceroy. He was much interested in historical research and 
L'ish antiquities, and for a time filled the President's chair of the 




Robert, Viscount Jocelyn, Lord Chancellor 
of Ireland. 

From ail Engrcning piihlislial htj T. Jcfjerys. 

" Physico-Historical Society," which numbered amongst its active 
members, Dr. Samuel Madden, the philanthropist; Thomas Prior, 
the founder of the Dublin Society ; the curious Dr. Rutty ; John 
Lodge, of genealogical fame ; Charles Smith, the county historian, 
who speaks in the preface to his " History of Kerry '' of Jocelyn's 
noble collection of manuscripts relative to Ireland; and Walter 
Harris, the editor of Ware's works, to whom Jocelyn was a most 
generous patron, and who left Jocelyn, " out of perfect gi'atitude," 
all his papers to dispose of at his discretion (i). 



(^) Lodge's Peerage, vol. iii.. p. 2(59; Harris's "Life of Lord Chancellor Hanl- 
wieke," vol. iii., p. 109 ; " Dictionary of Xational Biography," vol. xxix., p. 399 ; 
" Liber Muneruiu " ; Minute Book of Physico-Historieal Society, preserved in the 
Royal Irish Academy : " ^leinoirs and Letters of Ulick, Marquis of Clanricarde " 
{Lon., 17.")7) p. xix. ; Will of Walter Harris. 



MOUNf MERRION. 89 



To Mouut Merrion, whenever official duties permitted, it was 
Jocelyn's delight to retire from his mansion in St. Stephen's Green, 
and in his rural retreat he contrived tO' spend no small portion of 
his time. There, attended by his friend and chaplain. Dr. jMann, 
afterwards Bishop of Cork, who i-esided constantly with him, and 
by his favourite sei^vant, Mr. Wilde, his house steward, it was to 
J(Tcelyn the most agreeable relaxation tO' pass the day overseeing 
the haymakers or watching his horses, his cattle, and his dogs, as 
they wandered over the wide pastures. Lord Fitzwilliam must 
have found him an improving tenant; when a well was being sunk 
in the demesne. Lady Newport wrote tO' him that if the moles, as he 
called the workmen, failed to find water it would not be the first 
money thrown away ; and after Jocelyn's death, when Mount 
^lerrion was surrendered to its owner, difficulty was found in 
dividing his property from that of Lord Fitzwilliam. At Mount 
]\Ierrion on Sunday evening Jocelyn kept open house for his friends 
— his Sunday Club, as it was named by him — chief amongst those 
thus received being Henry Singleton, Chief Justice of the Common 
Pleas, one of the first lawyers of his day ; John Bowes, Chief Baron 
of the Exchequer, who succeeded Jocelyn as Chancellor, and was 
I'emarkable for his ox'atorical powers ; Richard Mountney, no less 
distinguished as a scholar than as a. Baron of the Exchequer ; and 
William Yorke, one of the puisne judges, and afterwards Single- 
ton's successor as Chief of the Common Pleas, who was a kinsman 
of Jocelyn's early friend, Lord Chancellor Hardwicke. Besides 
these, Robert Downes, Bishop of Ferns and Leighlin, was a con- 
stant guest, and Lord Harrington, while Lord Lieutenant, on at 
least one occasion stayed at Mount Merrion (i). 

While living at Mount Meirion in 1748 Jocelyn had the 
misfortune to lose his first wife, the sister-in-law of Bishop 
Goodwyn, a truly amiable and charitable lady, who was interred in 
Irishtown Church, of which Dr. Mann was then the chaplain. 
His only son, aftei-wards the first Earl of Rodcn, wIki. in the words 
of Mrs. Dclany, was " a very pretty man," and all a father could 
desire, and who, as part owner of a pack of hounds which was 
kennelled at Kilgobbin, enjoyed much popularity, was mairied sonic 
years later in. 1752 to a daughter of Lord Limerick, afterwards Karl 
of ('lan])rassil, a lady who was tluMi supposed to liav.' no great. 
|)iiiliiin, luit^ who cvcntnally l)rought to hci- cliildrcn a large estate. 

(I) Loril KodiMi's I'apcrs in tin I'lil.lir I'oc.kI Ollin- ; " 1 )iit i.mai v ■>t' \al iniml 
liioi^r pliy." vol. vi . p. .')H. Mil. .\.\.\i.\.. ]>. lMo. 



90 PARISH OF TANEY. 



After his son's marriage, Jocelyn took to himself a second wife, the 
handsome widow of the Earl of Rosse, of facetious fame, who, on his 
death-bed, caused a letter of good advice from his rector to bo 
re-directed and sent to one of the most ujDright noblemen of his 
day. This alliance Mrs. Delany considered in every way calculated 
to put the Chancellor in good humour. He continued to make 
Mount Merrion his home; in 1754 he joined in the fund to repair 
tlio neighbouring Church of Stillorgan, and in July of the next 
year he entertained there the Lord Lieutenant, the fourth Duke of 
Devonshire. A few months later he^ was raised to the dignity of 
a Viscounty as Viscounti Jocelyn, but only lived a short ti]ne to 
enjoy this honour and his domestic felicity, as the gout, tO' which 
ho had long been subject, assumed a more acute form, and having 
gone to London for medical advice, he died there in December, 1756, 
in the sixty-eighth year of his age, as recorded on a monument to his 
memory in Sawbridgeworth Church, in Hertfordshire, where he was 
buried with his ancestors (l). '- 

Mount Merrion House was now once more in the hands of its 
owner. The fifth Viscount Fitzwilliam, who had never returned to 
Ireland, had died in 1743 in Surrey, and had been succeeded by his 
eldest son, Richard, sixth Viscount Fitzwilliam. The latter had 
served in the army under his brother-in-law, the Earl of Pembroke, 
and although not on friendly terms with his father, is spoken of by 
Lord Chesterfield as an unexceptionable person. During his 
father's lifetime he had succeeded him in the office of Vice-Admiral 
of Leinster, and after his death he was made a Knight of the Bath 
and appointed a Privy Councillor. He married a daughter of a 
Dutch merchant, Sir Matthew Decker, Bart., who is best known 
as having feasted George I. on a pine apple (-) in his grand 
house in Richmond Green, and for his piety and benevolence, 
which were so great that a foolish scion of a noble house is related 
to have been persuaded by some wag that Decker was the author of 
St. Matthew's Gospel, and to have left him a large legacy on account 



(1) Blacker's Sketches, pp. 75, 280, 283; Brady's "Records of Cork," vol. iii.. 
p. 8(>; " Autobiography and Correspondence of Mary Granville, Mrs. Delany," vol. 
ii., p. 53"); vol. iii., pp. 178, 311; O'Flanagan's "Lives of the Ciiancellnrs of 
Ireland," vol. ii., p. 78 ; Letters in the Newcastle Papers in the British Museiun ; 
Diihlin Chronicle, 1787-1788, p. 2-4(5 ; Duhlin Gazette, No. 3!J8 ; Pues Ocmirrences, 
vol. Iii., No. 60; Harris's "Life of Lord Chancellor Hardvvicke," vol. ii.. p. .'id; 
vol. iii., p. 107; Chitterbuck's "History of Hertfordshire," vol. iii., ji. 21 S. 

('-) A picture of this jjine apple painted by H. Watkins and dated I72(), hangs 
in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge ; underneath is the following iiist'iijjtion : 
" Perenni Memoiia^ Mattluei Decker Baronetti et Theordoii Xetscher Armiireri 
strobilus hie regio convivio dignatus istius iinjjcnsis Richmondia> crevit hujus arte 
etiamnuiu crescere vidctiir." 



MOUNT MERRION. 



91 



of that excellent work. Altliougli not forgetful " that property has 
its duties as well as its rights," the sixth Viscount Fitzwilliam was 
for many years returned as one of the absentees from Ireland, and 
it was not until the close of his life that ho formed an intention of 
occupying ]\Iount Merrion, which on more than- one occasion had 



■ 




^ 


■ 


H 


^^^ 

^v' 


1 




1 


B^ 


Mm 




HI 


'N, 


^ 


H 


^ 






^1 


r 


1* 




9 


^ 


^. 


/ 


2111 


X.. 


J 


#- i 






Catherine, >^ife of 0th Viscount Pitzwilliam. Richard, 0th Viscount Fitzwilliam. 

Fio)u I'oilidH-s hi/ I'liiicc Home preserved in the Fitzwilliam Mu.ieiiiii. 

been suggested as a country residence f(n- the Lord Lieutenant. 
Then, possibly attracted by the beauty of the place, which had 
excited the adiniiatioii of Bishop Pococko and of a friend of Horace 
Walpole, and had lucii (-xtolled by a poetical wiitiT to the dispai'age- 
)nent of Richmond, wdierc the sixth Viscount had found a homo in 
his fatlu r-iii-law^'s lious(\ Ik^ began to^ nuike alterations at Mount 
Merrion, including the building of the fi'ont. of the house, which 
docs little credit to the Irish workmen wiiom al(jm> he employed, 
ami the construction of the avenue to Mount Anville and of the 
present deer park, and there in 177(1 lie died ('). 



(1) Cokayne's " Coiiiplcli' P(>cra<,'(%" vol. iii.. |). ."{SJ ; Urilisli .Aluseiiin. Add. 
M.S., 24,1.37. ]). 11!>: "Dictionary of National IJioLriapliy,"" vol. \iv.. p. •J(i(i ; 
" Ix'ttcrs of III iiiK till, ("ountt'ss of SiifTolk," vol. !., \>. ■_".>.'{: " Lilicis of Horace 
Walpok'," cdilcd l.y J'ctcr ('imniti<;liam, vol. i., |)|). :{o|, ;{(i:{; vol. \iii., j,. ,r,S ; 
I'lii'-s Orrurrciicex, vol. I\i\., .\o.s. ().").")."). ()r>7<> : \i>\. \\\.. .\o. (iCi'.Ki ; I'ococko's 
" 'I'our in Ireland," ciiii-d l,y j'rotcssor <•. T. Stokes, p. |(i:t ; Historical Alaiui- 
scrifits CoMiniissioii, IIi purt S, .\p|)., pi. ii.. p. Ill;" l'li<iiii\ j'.irk, a pocin l)y the 
AiilliMi 111 Kiljarncy " ( Lon. I77-); Fn ' mmi's .hniriKil. \o|. \:i., .\(,. | ; h'.r.t'h/iir'.^ 
Mii(/ii.i.ni lor 177l>, ]). 'Mi. 



92 PARISH OF TANEY. 



Mount Merrion House was then again let, and after having been 
occupied for a time by Mr. Peter La Touche, M.P. for the County 
Leitrim, it was taken by the Right Hon. John Fitzgibbon, then 
Attorney-General for Ireland, and afterwards Lord Chancellor, with 
the well-known title of Lord Clare, on his marriage to the sister 
of the renowned Jerusalem Whaley — a lady no less distinguished 
for her beauty, which attracted the attention of George IV., 
then Prince of Wales, than for her qualities of heart. Fitzgibbon 's 
appointment to the custody of the Great Seal in 1789 was, 
on the ground of his being an Irishman, the occasion of great 
rejoicings, and addresses and freedoms of cities were showered upon 
him. His position gave occasion for the stately magnificence which 
was congenial to his character. Preparations for the celebration of 
the Prince of Wales's birthday at Mount Merrion were made in 
the most superb style, and great dinners and balls, at which the 
Lord Lieutenant was a constant guest, were given by FitzGibbon and 
his wife. On his appointment as a Lord Justice his nephew was 
appointed as his Aide-de-Cami), and when visiting Limerick he was 
received with a guard of soldiers and general illuminations, and 
offered to knight the Mayor and Sheriffs. One of his possessions, 
which attracted much observation, was his statei coach, which 
is now preserved in the National Museum of Ireland — a vehicle 
unparalleled for its splendour. Crowds flocked to see it as it lay in 
Fitzgibbon's stables in Baggot Street, at the back of his town house 
in Ely Place, where it was freely shown to all, the servants being- 
forbidden toi accept any gratuity for its exhibition. The panels are 
decorated with paintings executed by William Hamilton, a Royal 
Academician, at a fee of 500 guineas, and the total cost of the coach, 
which was built in London, is stated to have been 2,000 guineas (i). 

About the year 1793, when Fitzgibbon leased Blackrock House, 
Mount MeiTion was again in the hands of its owners, Richard, 
seventh Viscount Fitzwilliam, who had succeeded to the titles in 
1776 on his fathers death. As founder of the Fitzwilliam Museum 
at Cambridge, he is the best known member of his family. This 
jirincely gift to his alma mater, with which a romantic story has 
been connected of an unsuccessful attachment for a Cambridge lady, 
formed while he was a student in the quiet courts of Trinity Hall, 



(1) Dublin Almanacs; Burke's "Landed Gentry," edition 1847. )>. •')n4 ; 
O'Flanagan's " Lives of the Lord Chancellors of Ireland," vol. ii., p. llt.j ; " Auck- 
land Coirespondence," vol. ii., p. 231 ; Hiher/iian Magazine for 1789, pp. 394, 
449 ; and 1794, p. 193 ; " Tiie Mirror," and "The Pronienade or Theatre of Beauty," 
preserved in the Halidav Paniplilets (vols. .538, "rl) in Roval Irish Academv ; 
DahUn Chronirh: 17S8-i7S9. p. 4(i4 : 17S9-1790, pp. 184, 904"; 1790-1791. j)p. (l."), 
310, 480, 49t), 544, ofiO, (548 ; 1791-179-2, p. 521. 



MOUNT MERRION. 



93 



and of uudying affection for tlie place — a story to which his continu- 
ance in the single state lends some probability — was one of almost 
unexampled munificence, including, as it did, both his vast collec- 
tions of rare books and pictures, and a bequest of £100,000 for the 
erection and endowment of a museum. During part of liis life ho 
courted privacy, but he represented for a rxumber of years, through 
the influence of his cousin, the Earl of Pembroke, the borough of 
Wilton in the English Parliament, and had the reputation of being 
nut only a man of enlarged and liberal mind, but also of being one 
of a kind and compassionate disposition, who was easy of access to 
all. His home was at Richmond, in Sir Matthew Decker's house, 




Richard, 7th Viscount Fitzwilliam. 

From fi Portrait hij Xalh'niid Hone preserved in the Fitr.irilliiuii Museum 

but he was constantly on the move, earning from his uiicio William, 
till' chaiacter of l)i'ing as unfixed as Mercury. His visits to 1 Iceland 
were generally of shoit duration ; on (me occasion he accomplished 
the feat, a remarkable one in his time, of perfonniiig the j<mrney 
there and back in fourteen days, but he found time on his visits to 
this country to extend his patronage to William Asht'oid. (he first 
President of tlic Royal Hibernian Academy, by whom a number 
of paintings and drawings of ^Mount Merrion were executed. These 
are now presei'ved in the Fitzwilliam IMuseuni, and from them the 
accompanying views of the place are taken (i). 

(') " Dirtioiiarvof Naiiuiial I'.i.M.TMiiliy," vol. xi.x., p. 229 : l'l,i\ tail's " Family 
,\ntir|iiity," vol. "v.. d. 4^: I'.iiti^li .Miisniin \<\i\. MS., lit, 2(4. Dp. I.",. 17. :Vj'; 
" Fx"t(fTH of Horace \\'al|><)li','" (•(IKcd [)y i'llci ( 'iinniiiL'iiarn. vol. i\., pp. -JtiC), 
32.'{, 32H ; also son for .Aslifori! " Dirlionniy of .Nntioiial BioL'rapliy," vdI. ii., p. 
10!). and IJiackor's Skctclic-. p. ( «». 



94 



PARISH OF TANEY. 




^ 












S S, 



c 



^ .2 












MOUNT MERRION ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 95 

During the seventh Viseount's lifetime jNIount Merrion House 
was occupied by Mr. Richard Verschoyle and by his wife, Miss 
Barbara Fagan, who was, as her mother had been before her, agent 
to Lord Fitzwilliam, and the seat is still shown in Mount Merrion 
where that lady used to sit and watch for her husband coming up 
the straight drive. To Mr. Verschoyle succeeded, as agent and as 
occupier of Mount ^Merrion, Mr. Cornelius Sullivan, of whose 
sporting proclivities old inhabitants have still recollections, and 
subsecjuently Mr. John Edward Vernon, to whom the Pembroke 
estate owes so much, and whose abilities were recognised in his 
appointment as one of the original Connnissioners under the Irish 
Land Acts (i). 

After the death of the seventh Viscount Fitzwilliam in 1816 his 
estate passed to his cousin, George Augustus, eleventh Earl of Pem- 
broke and eighth Earl of Montgomery, the descendant of Queen 
Caroline's maid of honour, and the titles, after being held for a 
few vears successively by his two brothers, became extinct. The 
eleventh Earl of Pembroke left his Irish estate to his second 
son, the great and good Sidney, Lord Herbert of Lea, whose sons, 
the thirteenth and fourteenth Earls of Pembroke, have since succes- 
sively held the property (-). 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTOHY. 

The great diversity in the spelling of the name Taney in ancient 
records must ever leave its origin a matter of speculation, and it is 
a subject for regret that the dedication of its first church is also 
lost in the obscurity <if past ages (3). Bid it is established beyond 
question that before the Anglo-Norman Conquest a church stood at 
Dundrum on the site of what is now known as the old church — an 
eighteenth century sti-ucturc^ — and that under the Celtic ecclesiasti- 
cal arrangement the place was one of religicnis importance. It is said 
that it was the seat of one of the rural bishops, or chorepiscopi, and 
that the extensive rural deanery attached to Taney in the thir- 
teenth centun', which ('ml)raced such distant parishes a.s Cooloc'k, 



(') Hall aiui ilainillnii-. - l'ari-<li of Taney." |)|i. I l'.>. ISI: /C.rshtnv's Mnqn- 
zinc for ITH'.t, p. '>^^>. 

(■')" Dictionary of Xational l'.io-_'ia|.liy,"' vol. wvi., |). -Ml': Cokayiic's 
" (Viiiiplctf! Pccraj.'c." 

(•') Sec for at1<-iii|i1-. In iilciitily llic ilciliialory >;iiiil .()' II an Inn's •' Lives nf the 
Irisli Kainl.s" vol. i.. p. H'.S ; v<il. vii.. p. liTl , and I'.i p. i l.y I'al i i( k .1. ( )' Kcilly in 
.Jiiiini'il, J{.S..\./.. \cil. \\\ii., p. :i77. 



96 PARISH OF TANEY. 



Chapelizod. and Clonsilla, represented the limits of his authority. 
After the Anglo-Nonnan Conquest the Church of Taney, together 
with the portion of tlie lands of Churchtown, or Taney, assigned to 
the See of Dublin, was given to the Archbishop, and towards the 
close of the twelfth century Taney became a prebend in the newly- 
founded collegiate church of St. Patrick, which was soon afterwards 
created a cathedral establishment. Subsequently, in exchange for 
the Church of Lusk, the Church of Taney, then a mother church, 
with the chapels of Donnybrook, Rathfarnham, and Kilgobbin 
dependent on it, was gi'anted to the Archdeacon of Dublin, and the 
prebend of Taney, which has been revived since the disestablish- 
ment of the Church of Ireland, became merged in that dignity. 
From that time until 1851 the parish of Taney continued to be 
portion of the Archdeacon's corps, and was served, like Donny- 
brook, by curates appointed by him (l). 

During the temj^orary dissolution of St. Patrick's Cathedral in 
the sixteenth century, William Power, the Archdeacon of Dublin, 
was given a pension as prebendary of Taney and Rathfarnham, and 
the revenue from those parishes was leased to Sir Richard Rede, 
and subsequently to Sir John Allen, who successively filled the office 
of Lord Chancellor, with the condition that fit chaplains should bo 
found for the churches. The tithes which were levied on the town- 
lands of Taney, Dundrum, Balally, Ballinteer, Roebuck, " the 
Chantrell Ferme,'' and Callary, were valued at £19 per annum, and 
the glebe, on which there was a house, and which, wuth the fees and 
oblations, were assigned to the curate, was valued at 9s. Early in 
the seventeenth century the church was returned as in good repair 
and provided with books, but some years later it was stated to be in 
ruin. The parish was served generally by the Cui'ate of Donny- 
brook. In 1615 the Rev. Robert Pont was in charge of the cure ; in 
1630 the Rev. Richard Prescott; in 1639 the Rev. Thomas Naylor, 
afterwards a prebendary of Ferns Cathedral ; and in 1641 the Rev. 
George Hudson. The cure in 1647 was returned as vacant, and 
probably the church became quite unfit for use during the Common- 
wealth (2). 



(') Dansey'.s " Horse Decanica^ Kiiralos,"' vol. ii.. p. .jKi; Reeves' "Analysis of 
the Diocese of Dublin and Glendalough " ; " Crede Miiii," edited bv Sir John 
Gilbert, pp. 21, 1.36 ; Sweetnian's Calendar, 1302-1307, p. 239 ; Christ Church 
Deed Xo. 150; Mason's " History of St. Patrick's Cathedral," p. 44. 

(2) Mason's "History of St. Patrick's Cathedral." p. 44; Fiant PMward VI., 
Xo. 32; Regal Visitation of 1615: .Archbishop Bulkeley's Report, p. 154; Dio- 
cesan Record. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 97 



Under the Roman Catholic Cliureh the parish, as we have seen, 
was within the Union of Donnybrook, and the Rev. John Cahill, 
who had chai'ge of the union in tlie beginning of the seventeenth 
century, held services at Dundruiii and at Balally. Nearly all the 
parishioners belonged to that faith — in 1630 there were only two 
Protestant householders — and under the protection of the chief 
residents, the Fitzwillianis and the Walshes, Mr. Cahill was able to 
perform the services of his church without interference 0). 



After the Restoration Taney parish was generally placed in 
charge of the curate appointed to Donnybrook, and the church, in 
which at that time the Archbolds of Kilmacud found a burying 
place (2), was allowed to remain in a state of dilapidation. At the 
beginning of the eighteenth century a church, now a ruin, was built 
at Kilgobbin, and curates were appointed at the lilieral stipend of 
£35 a year and book money to the joint charge of Kilgobbin and 
Taney, amongst them being, in 1753, the author of the '" Monasticon 
Hibernicum," and editor of Lodge's " Peerage of Ireland," the Rev. 
Mervyn Archdall, who became subsequently a prebendary in the 
Ossory diocese. It was not until the middle of the eighteenth 
century that the structure now known as the old church of Taney, 
which stands in the gi'aveyard, and serves as a mortuaiy chapel, was 
erected through the exertions of Lord Chancellor Jocelyn's friend, 
Dr. Isaac Mann, who was in 1757 appointed Archdeacon of Dublin, 
and of his curate, the Rev. Jeremy Walsh, whom Dr. Mann nomi- 
nated in 1758 to the charge of his parishes of Kilgobbin and Taney. 
It is, externally, a singularly plain building, more resembling a 
barn than a chuixh, and, internally, the original reading desk and 
pulpit, which still remain, rising above the Communion Table, show 
that it was equally devoid of ornament. It had, however, the dis- 
tinction of being consecrated by the munificent Dr. Richaid 
Robinson, then Bishop of Ferns and Leighlin, and afterwards 
Primate, and a ])eer, with the title of Loid Rokcby, who piM-foniied 
the ceremony on Sunday, June S, 1760, and a year latei- was used 
by the Bisho]) of Limerick, Dr. James Leslie, for an nidinat i<i'i, at 
which tlir Rev. Ivhvaid I.cdwicli, the aiiti(juaiy, and the Rev. 
Beather King, afterwards Curate of Stillorgan, were achnit'ed to 
the Oi-flci- of Priest. But perhaps the most ri'iiiai-lval)le scene its 



(') Arfiil)isli(i|i iJiilkrli y'> l;i|iij|t. |i. |.")l, 

(■■') Tin- only tiHiilistoiics of the .-icvtiitcciit h ntiluiy in tlic ^;ravc\iiii| (if 'rniicv 
rclaff to inemhiTrt of thiH family. Str ]}nll and IliuniUon's " Parish d iaiuv," 

pp. 27/jH. ' : , 

Fl 



98 



PARISH OF TANEY. 



walls ever witnessed was in Jnly, 1787, when that famons ovator, 
the Rev. Walter Blake Kirwan, not long after his reception into the 
Established Church, delivered one of his great sermons in support of 
the schools then lately founded iu the parish, and when the congre- 
gation, in addition to their edification by "" a finished ]oiece' of execu- 
tion," were delighted by the " heavenly psalmody " of a choir 
brought from Dublin (i). 




■ The Old Church at Taney. 

From a F/iotograph hij Thomas Mason. 

After the erection of Taney Church the parish of Kilgobbin was 
given to another curate, and the Rev. Jeremy Walsh, who lived in 
the house now known as Whitehall, near Rathfarnham, where he 
married in 1778 the widow of Thomas Eyre, a member of the Irish 
Parliament, devoted his whole time to Taney parish. His succes- 
sors continued to do the same, the appointments to the cure being 
as follows: — in 1787, the Rev. William Dwyer, who only remained 
a few months, and then went to Cork ; and the Rev. Matthew 
Campbell, who served the jDarishioners faithfully for twenty-five 



(1) Ball and Hamilton's "Parish of Taney." pp. 'J4. 07. 214, -2.30; Pnes Or- 
rnrrenccs, vol. Ivii., Xo. 47 ; Reports on the Churches in the Diocese of Dublin 
preserved in tlio Parliamentary Papers in the PubUc Record Office ; Dublin 
Chronicle, 1787-1788, pp. 286, 296, 297 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 99 

years; in 1814 the Rev. Richard Ryan, a son-in-law of INlr. John 
Giffard, in whose time the present church of Taney was built ; in 
1820 the Rev. Henry Hunt, who was thanked, on the motion of 
Lord Downes, for his zeal in the parish, and was afterwax"ds Vicar- 
General of the Elphin diocese; in 1821 the Rev. William Forde 
Vance and the Rev. James Bulwer, who was a most accomplished 
artist and writer, and who was subsequently beneficed in Norfolk, 
where he had charge of the Library at Blickling Hall; in 1824 the 
Rev. Henry Hamilton; in 1825 the Rev. Alexander Burrowes 
Campbell; in 1828 the Rev. John Prior, who was presented with a 
piece of plate in recognition of his activity and Christian bene- 
volence; in 1834 the Rev. Samuel Henry Mason; in 183G the 
Rev. Clement Archer Schoales; and in 1837 the Rev. William 
Heniy Stanford, whose labours during his ministry of fifteen years 
was the subject of an eulogistic address. On his resignation the 
parish of Taney was severed from the Archdeaconry, and the subse- 
quent appointments as rector have been — in 1851, the Rev. Andrew 
Noble Bredin; in 1857, the Rev. Edward Busteed Moeran ; in 1867, 
the Rev. William Alfred Hamilton; in 1895, the Rev. John Joseph 
Robinson; and in 1900, the Rev. William Monk Gibbon (i). 



(1) Ball and Hamilton's " Parish of Taney," pp. ">:}, (>9-S(). 



H li 



100 PORTION OF THE PARISH OF ST. PETER. 



Portion of the Parish of St Peter, 

Dublin. 

(For)inrlu part of the Parish, of <S7. Kevin.) . __ 



The portion of tlie Parish of St. Peter lying outside the City of Dublin was, in 
ancient times included in the Manor of St. Sepulchre, and now comprises the 
modern Townlands of Baggotrath East, North, and West, Cullenswood, 
Harold's Cross East and West, Milltown, Portobello, Kanelagh North an(l 
South, and Rathmines East, South, and West. ; . 



R ATHM IN ES. 

Rathmines, wh'icli lies to the west of Donnybrook, and is now the 
largest suburb of the Irish metropolis, formed originally portion of 
the property of the See of Dublin, and was included within the 
Archbishop's manor of St. Sepulchre. At the beginning of the 
fourteenth century the Rath in the tenement of St. Sepulchre, 
previously held by Richard de Welton, came into the possession of 
a family called de Meones, and to this fact is due the name Meones' 
Rath, afterwards inverted into Rathmines. Some members of +liis 
family, supposed to' have come over from Hampshire in the train of 
Archbishop John de Derlington, who was appointed to the See of 
Dublin in 1279, occupied a high position in Ireland. William de 
Meones, who was executor of Archbishop de Derlington, combined 
the clerical dignity of a Canon of St. Patrick's Cathedral with the 
lay offices of Chamberlain and Baron of the Exchequer, and ether 
members of the family acted as bailiff and Mayor of Dublin. In 
1326 the Rath was held by Gilbert de Meones, a warrior, to who)u 
one of his kinsmen bequeathed a corselet, and in 1382 by William 
de Meones, who styled himself Lord of Meonesrath. In addition 
to the Rath, the Meones family were tenants for other lands in 
the manor, known as the Stoneway and the Pass, the former being 
now represeinted by lands near Mount Argus, and the latter being 
en the east side of the old highway to^ Rathfarnham, now the 
road through Harold's Cross. They were also owners of a mill 
near the Dodder (i). 

(1) "Notices of the Manor of St. Sepulchre in the Fourteenth Centiu-y," by 
James Mills, Journal, R.S.A.I., vol. xi^., pp. 31j 119; Manqscripts in Trinitj' 
College Library, No. 1207-30, 



RATHMINES. 101 



During the seveuteenth century Ratliniiues had an eventful his- 
tory. Soon after the arrival of the Earl of Strafford iii 1G33, tho 
lauds, which had been previously in the possession of the Barons of 
Howth, were selected by Strafford's friend and counsellor, Sir 
George Radclifife, as the site of one of the great mansions which 
were projected during the I'ule of that masterful viceroy. In this 
case, unlike others, the house was actually completed. It stood 
close to the road through Old Rathmines, which was then llio 
highway from Dublin to Dundrum, not far from the site of tho 
modern Rathmines Castle, on the gi"ound now lying between 
Pahnerston Villas and Cowper Villas. Its value was estimated at 
£7,000, then an enormous amount, and it was, doubtless, as a con- 
temporary writer says, a stately thing. There Radcliffe, who was 
the best of good fellows, as well as an able man, heartily welcomed 
his friends, and there under the guidance of Radcliffe's fowler, 
Strafford, who says he would have been the most solitary of men 
in Ireland without his friend, possibly indulged in his favourite 
sport of hawking, for which the surrounding country at that time 
was well adapted. But Radcliffe's residence at Rathmines was of 
slKut duration — ^in the autumn of 1639 he dated a letter there; a 
year later he was in prison in London — and in 164'2 his house, 
which had passed safely through the previous winter of rebellion, 
was occupied by the wife and children of the Earl, afterwards 
Duke, of Ormonde, who was then commanding the army in Ireland. 
In August of that year, probably on account of a serious illness 
winch Oniinnde had at that time, his family moved into Dublin, 
and three days after they had left, the house was burned. Its 
destruction was generally attributed to marauding Ixinds of the 
Iiish Aiiiiv, but some thought one of Ormonde's own iKUisehold 
had been a party to it, and made much of the fact that the care- 
taker had fled, and that his wife was found dead (l). 

Before tho cessation in 1013 the neighbourhood of Rathmines 
was liable to incursions fi-om the troops of the Confederate Army 
stationed in tho Countv Wicklow. In April of tliat yeai' Thomas 
Parnell, a goldsmith, of Duljlin, was walking, as he subsecjiicnl ly 
deposed, in the fli'lds which then lay near St. Kevin's Church, 
waiting for service to begin, when he was suddenly surprised I)y " a 
coinpaiiy f)f reljellious soldiers" uiidci- tlie coniniand of Captain 



(') CiirU- l'ii|)cis, vol. ii.. p. IT"-'; ' Dictionary of \aticiini l'.ioi:ra|>liy." vol. 
xlvii.. ]). 12.''.; l)own Survey Map ; Onliiaiire Survey Map <il iSItT; D'.Mton'H 
" History of the Coniity Duliiin," p. 77H ; ' Si lalVonrs Letters," editeil liy William 
Knowler, vol. ii., p. IS! ; Depositions of Hi 1 1 (Williarii Mridi.'es ot llafolil's ( Iraii^e); 
riilciidar of Irisli State Piipers, i<>:5:{ |(i47, p. --1; " .Metiioirs and Letters of 
I'lick, .Miircpiis of riariri( arde " (Lon 17">7). p. "-'•i'i. 



102 PORTION OF THE PARISH OF ST. PETER. 

Toole, and was carried away forcibly to Powei^scourt. The next 
day he was taken to Arklow, where he was kept for twenty-six 
weeks a close prisoner, and often threatened with execution, " which 
bred great terror and fear in him.'' In September of that year, 
after the cessation had been concluded, a troop of horse and two 
companies of foot came within musket shot of trenches which had 
been made near St. Kevin's Church, and on their return, after 
killing a herd and wounding several others, drove before them into 
the County Wicklow all the cattle that they could find. The 
number of cattle driven off was estimated at 359 head, as well as 
29 horses, which were also taken, and amongst them were nine 
cows belong'ing to the Archbishop of Dublin, which were grazing 
in a field near Harold's Cross. This act was a violation of the 
treaty of cessation, but in spite of the utmost efforts on the jDart 
of the authorities and of sevei'al journeys undertaken by the owners 
at the risk of their lives into the wilds of the County Wicklow, 
only a few of the cattle were' recovered, and these not the best (i). 

The summer of 1649 saw the great historic event with which this 
district is associated, and which has been already referred to in 
connection with Baggotrath, the Battle of Rathmines, resulting in 
the signal defeat of the Royalist Army under the command of the 
Marquis, afterwards Duke, of Ormonde, by the troops of the Parlia- 
ment, then gaiTisoning Dublin, under the command of Colonel 
Michael Jones. It was in the immediate neighbourhood of Sir 
George Radcliffe's mansion on the gi'ound now covered by Palnier- 
ston Park and the adjacent roads that Ormonde encamped his 
troops on moving from Finglas, where he had lingered in a state 
of fatal inaction for many weeks. There on the 27th July, at ai 
council of war, attended, under the presidency of the Lord-General, 
by Lord Inchiquin, his Lieutenant-General ; Lord Castlehaven, the 
General of the Horse ; Lord Taaffe, the Master of the Ordnance ; 
General Thomas Preston, the well-known commander of the Con- 
federate Army ; Sir Arthur Aston, who fell a few weeks later in 
the massacre at Drogheda; Sir William Vaughan, Major-General 
of the Horse; and Major-General Patrick Purcell, Major-General 
of the Foot; the disastrous decision was made to despatch Lord 
Inchiquin with two regiments of horse to Munster, where it was 
apprehended Cromwell would land, as well as the determination to 
take Rathfarnham Castle, then garrisoned by the Parliament, which 
was successfully accomplished the next day. 



(1) Depositions of ir)41 (Tliomas Parnell, John Johnson, Robert Parry, and Jolin 
Davies cf the City of Dublin). 



rathMines. 



103 










•1> i . 




c 



!5 









E "^ 









c 



3 



'104 PORTION OF THE PARISH OF ST. PETER. 

At Rathmines another council of war was held on August 1st, 
at which it was decided to fortify Baggotrath Castle if practicable, 
and from Rathmines, after an inspection and favourable report 
had been made by Lord Castlehaven, General Preston, and Major- 
General Purcell, a body of troops under the command of the last- 
named set out that evening to execute the work. In his tent at 
Rathmines, Ormonde sat up all night in order to be ready for an 
attack should one be made, and to complete despatches which he 
was preparing to send off to France to Charles II. ; and from there 
at daybreak next morning he rode down to Baggotrath to see what 
progress had been made with the work of fortification. At Rath- 
mines, after his return some hours later, while taking in his tent a 
few moments' rejDose, he was awakened by the sound of firing, and, 
on rushing out of his tent, found, before he had gone many yards, 
that the soldiers at Baggotrath had been driven off, that Sir William 
Vaughan had been killed while gallantly leading some of the cavalry 
to their support, and that Vaughan's troop, as well as others which 
had been placed between Baggotrath and Rathmines, had been 
routed. 

The land between the Donnybrook Road and the road through 
Old Rathmines was then divided into fields, and Ornvonde's camp 
was approached from them by narrow lanes. These it would have 
been easy to defend, but owing to treachery and inefficiency, which, 
doubtless, existed in an army composed largely of deserters from 
the Parliament ranks, and officered in many cases by Irishmen more 
conspicuous for their loyalty than for skill in arms, no attempt was 
made to do so, and it is even .said that barriers which had been 
placed in the lanes were removed. The Parliament commander. 
Colonel Michael Jones, pushed on the advantage which he had 
gained until the right wing of Ormonde's army was completely 
defeated. As soon as Ormonde perceived, as he tells us himself, 
that the troops of which that wing were composed were running 
away towards the hills of Wicklow, where some of them had been 
born and bred, and the way to which they knew only too well, he 
turned his attention to the centre of his army, composed of foot, 
which had served under Lord Inchiquin, and which were then 
commanded by Colonel Giffard. To its support he brought other 
troops under the command of his brother, Colonel Richard Butler, 
and Colonel Reyley, but these failed hiin, and on Colonel Giffard's 
men being attacked from behind by a troop of Colonel Jones' horse, 
which approached them by a lane which ran from Milltown to 
what is now the Ranelagh Road, and in front by a party of 
Colonel Jones' foot, they gave way and accepted quarter. 



RATHMINES. 105 



As a last resort, Ormonde, jumping liis horse over a ditch, made 
for the left wing of his army, which, probably, was stationed 
between RadcliflFe's house and Rathgar, and which Ormonde had 
not called to his ass'istance, as there was a resei"ve of the Parliament 
Army in front of them, but he found that news of the defeat of 
the right wing and centre of the army had reached them, and that, 
thinking themselves deserted, they w^ere making good their escape. 
After several fruitless attempts to rally them, Ormonde, who had 
displayed much pei'sonal bravery, and whose armour had aloaie 
saved him from a wound, or even death, made off himself towards 
the County Kildare, leaving the Parliament forces in possession of 
the field. The victory was a decis'ive one, and in the fulness of 
their rejoicing the Parliament proclaimed that they had slain 
4,000 of Ormonde's army, and had taken 2,517 prisoners, many of 
high rank, in addition to seven cannon, many transport waggons, 
two hundred draught oxen, and a camp furnished, as they repre- 
sented it, with great store of provisions and wine, and with all 
manner of silk, velvet, and scarlet cloth, which also fell into their 
hands. This account is much exaggerated, and the total number of 
men under Ormonde's command cannot have much, if at all, 
exceeded the combined numbers returned as killed and taken 
prisoners ; but it is equally impossible to rely on the Royalist reports 
which, while calling the battle a drawn engagement, and a night 
surprise, give the number killed on their side as not more than 
600. After the battle some of the English Royalist troops took 
refuge within the walls of Radcliffe's house and made so gallant a 
defence that it was not for some days that they laid down their arms. 
and then only did so on promises of safety for their lives (i). 

Durijig the Commonwealth the population of Rathmines, 
including the residents in Sir George Radclifl'e's house, which was 
restored and was rated for taxation as containing six hearths, was 
returned as only six persons of English and six persons of Irish 
extraction. Sir George RadclifTe was still stated to be (nviui- of tlio 
lands, which included pditions known as Lord Ifowth's land and 
Widow Drury's land, hut, his house, witii a demesne of sixty acres, 



). 



(') (Jardiiifi's " IlistDiy ot tin- ('iiiiiriiiiiwcaltii ainl l*i nicildialc," \(il. 
1)9; Carte's "Life of Ormonch; " (Lon. \i:M\), p. 77; CiJlMMt's '■ History of the 
Irish f'onffflf.Tation and tlic War in Ireland," vol. vii., \>. !•_':{ ; Cartc'.s " ("nliccfion 
f)f Oriffiiiai Inciters and i'a|)crs "' ( l.un., I 7:i'.i), \(il. ii., |i. 107 : Curry's '' Memorials 
of the- fJreut Civil War in l'',iii:land," vol. ii.. p. !.")!»; Walsii's " History and Viti- 
dication of tlie Loyal Fotiiiiilary or Irish Keiiiotistrance." |). (KMt ; "The Water 
Siijj|)lv of Aiiiieiit Duhlin," \>y Henry P. Merry in .huniKil. II. S.A.I., vol. x.\i.. 
\). .">.")7 ; l'roice(hn{iS of the I'oyal Irish .Aeadeiny. ser. i., \(il. \i.. p. ;{0."> ; .Imtnitll. 
U.S. A. I., vol. x.xxii., p. '254 (note); 'IVaets pre.serveil in \\\r Tin ji pc Ci jIIccI icm in 
tlie N'atiniiid l,iliiar\- of lii-land and in the Koyal Iri-h .\iadein\. 



l06 PORTION OF THE PARISH OF ST. PETEIl. 

was occupied by Captain Williaan Shore. Captain Shore was con- 
nected with the County Fermanagh. His first wife wasi a daughter 
of Henry, Baron Dockwra, of Cuhnore; and Sir Henry Brooke, 
ancestor of the baronets of that name, who had married another 
daughter of Baron Dockwra, had also an interest in the house and 
demesne of Rathmines. On the death of his first wife. Captain 
Shore married the widow of Baron Lewis Hamilton, the brother 
of the first Lord Glenawley, and father of the distinguished de- 
fender of Enniskillen in the time of James II. She was a native of 
Sweden, of which countiy her first husband was a noble, and is 
said to have been possessed of a large fortune and to have been of 
very high birth. She married, in addition to Baron Hamilton 
and Captain Shore, two other husbands, an ancestor of the Arch- 
dalls of Fennanagh, and Montgomerys of Tyrone, and an ancestor 
of the Summerville family, now ennobled under the title of Ath- 
lumney. Captain Shore's death occurred about 1668, and ten years 
later there were legal jiroceedings between his representatives and 
Thomas Radcliffe, the only son of Sir George Radcliffe, with regard 
to tho lands of Rathmines (i). 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century the Temple family, 
ennobled under the title of Palmerston, came into possession of 
Rathmines. and to this circumstance the use of the name Palmer- 
ston in the present nomenclature of a great portion of the district 
is due. The rural character of the neighbourhood was still main- 
tained ; in October, 1704, Dr. William King, then Bishop of Deny, 
and afterwards Archbishop of Dublin, stayed there temporarily, as 
lie had done shortly before at Rathfarnhani, in order to obtain 
country air, and the only residence of any importance besides the 
mansion house was one called Boland Hall, the owner of which in 
1727 put an end to his life by throwing himself into the Dodder at 
Milltown (2). 

Under a lease made in 1746 by Henry, first Viscount Palmerston, 
tho mansion house of Rathmines became the country seat of the 
Right Hon. William Yorke, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in 
Ireland. When the lease was made, Yorke occupied the position of 



(') Hearth Money Roll ; Census of 1059 ; Repertory Chancery Decrees, vol. ii.. 
pp. 320, 405 ; Book of Distribution in Royal Irish Aearlcniy : Book of Survey in 
Public Recoixl Office ; " Monea Castle and tlie Hainiltons," by the Earl of liejniore 
in Ulslcr Journal of Arrha'ologi/, vol. i., pj). 195, 250 ; Lodge's Peerafje, vol. vi., 
p. 80 ; Burke's Extinct Peerage. 

('-) Leases in Registry of Deeds Office: Archl)islio]i King's Correspondence in 
Trinity College Library ; Dtihliyi WecJcli/ Joiinird, >^t\\ A]m\. 1727; J>Hliliii C/min- 
icle, 1 788-1 7S9, p. (;08. 



RATHMINES. 107 



second justice of that court — a position to which he had been 
promoted thx-ee years previously direct fi'om the English Bar 
through the influence of his kinsman, the great Earl of Hardwicke, 
then Lord Chancellor of England. In Ireland he was received with 
every attention by Hardwicke s friend, Lord Chancellor Jocelyn, 
and a year after his arrival in 1744 he married the widow of Mr. 
William Cope, of Loughgall, who had died shortly before of fever, 
a year after his marriage. Yorke thus became connected with the 
chief of his court, the Right Hon. Henry Singleton, who was her 
uncle, and with the astute Philip Tisdal, already mentioned in con- 
nection with Stillorgan, who was her brother-in-law. In 1753 Chief 
Justice Singletoii retired in Yorke's favour, and in 1755, William^ 
Marquis of Hartington, afterwards fourth Duke of Devonshire, soon 
after his arrival in Ireland as Lord Lieutenant, honoured the tewlv- 
appointed Chief Justice by dining with him at Rathmines. Yorke 
resigned the chiefship of the Common Pleas in 1761 on being 
created a baronet and appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in the 
room of the illustrious Anthony Malone, but only held the latter 
office for two years, until 1763, when he retired to London, where 
he died in 1776 fi'om accidentally taking a dose of poison, and was 
buried in the chapel of the Charter House (i). 

At the close of the eighteenth century a school was established 
in Chief Justice Yorke's residence, and about thirty years later 
it presented the appearance of a farmhouse, and was used as a 
boarding-house, which was frequented by persons of a consumptive 
tendency. At the latter period it had been superseded by the 
modern Rathmines Castle, which was built about 1820 by Colonel 
Wynne, and was subsequently occupied successively by Sir Jonas 
Green, sometime Recorder of Dublin, and the Rev. Thomas Kelly. 
It was not until Chief Justice Yorke's time that direct com- 
munication was made between what is now known a.s Old Rath- 
mines and Rathgar the latter place having until then been ap- 
pi-oachcd from Dublin through Harold's Cross by the construction 
of Ilighfield Road. The consti-uction of Rathgar Road and the 
modern urban districts of Rathmines and Rathgar dates only from 
the nineteenth centuiy (2). 



(') Ijea.se in Kegi.stry of Deeds Otlici' ; I'm'.-i Occurn nr('<, mA. \I., .No. :{;i. \(>1. 
xli.. No. 74, vol. lii., No. (U ; Diihlin dnzr/tr, 2ii(i Oetolier, 1741, liTtli October, 
1742; Harris's " T.,ife of LonI ('liancellr)r llardwieke." vol. ii., pp. .")n. ."((M. oOli ; 
Burke's " Larulcd (ieiitry " under Sin{.detoii of .Mell ; Haydn's " Knok of Dii^- 
nities " ; Atinual UhjIkIi r foe 177<>, j). IS!I. 

('^) Duhliti Jfiurnal, -No. '-'(i'.)'.! ; " I'lan of iiatliiniiirs Si Imol niidci- llir iliirctiori 
of tlic Reverend Cluuies IJairy."' jncseived anion>;st llaiiday Tracts (vol. ."»(>'.•) in 
l{oval lii.-li .Vciidcriiy ; Dulilin I'l niti/ .loitninl, mI. ii., p. Si. 



108 PORTION OF THE PARISH OF ST. PETER. 



RANELAGH AND SANDFOF^D. 

{Funiu.rli/ callcii Cullcn-^wood.) 

The lands on which these suburban districts stand lie between the 
lands of Rathmines and those of Baggotrath and Donnybrook, 
and once formed, like the lands of Rathmines, portion of the pro- 
perty of the See of Dublin, constituting a manor, subordinate to the 
manor of St. Sepulchre. This manor, which appears in the four- 
teenth century under the name of Colon, has been identified with a 
place called Nova Colonia, where, in the thirteenth century, the 
Archbishop of Dublin had a residence. In the opinion of the 
Deputy Keeper of the Records in Ireland it formed the corps of 
the prebend without cure of souls, in right of which the Archbishop 
of Dublin occupies a seat in the chapter of St. Patrick's Cathedral. 
At Nova Colonia in 1253 ArchbishoiJ Luke signed a decree, and 
there in 1290 Archbishop John de Sanford, then Justiciary of Ire- 
land, received, a deputation from the merchants of Dublin. A great 
portion of the lands was covered with the wood, whence the 
name Cullenswood is derived, which on more than one occasion 
is said to have afforded cover to the Irish tribes when making 
attacks on the English inhabitants of Dublin. According to tra- 
dition, on a certain Easter Monday, a day for long afterwards 
known as Black Monday, the original English settler's from Bristol 
to the number of 500, while engaged in public sports near it, were 
surprised and slaughtered by a party of the Irish, and in it more 
than a hundred years later the chief of the O'Tooles and eighty 
followers concealed themselves all night before making an attack on 
Dublin, which resulted in their being put to flight and pursued for 
six leagues, with a loss of seventeen killed and many mortally 
wounded. 

The manor of Colon did not escape the devastations of the neigh- 
bourhood, which, as mentioned in the history of Dundrum, resulted 
from the invasion of Bruce, and a deplorable picture is presented 
in 1326 of the state of the manor. The buildings, including the 
Archbishop's hall and chamber, with a chapel attached, which were 
built of stone and roofed with shingles, as well as offices, consisting 
of a kitchen, fannhouse, stable and granary made of timber, were 
part in ruin and part level with the ground, while the meadows 
which extended along the highway were destroyed by trespass on 
the part of the carriers and their pack horses ; the pastures could 
not be stocked owing to the raids of the malefactors from the 



RANELAGH AND SANDFORD. 109 

mountains, and the wood had been so ravaged thai there was no 
profit to be obtained even from the sale of firewood, while the 
ground which it had occupied was useless for pasture. The serfs, 
who had worked the lands for the Archbishop, fled, and the Arch- 
bishop, finally thinking it well to have some profit from the 
manor land, leased it at a low rent to tenants better able to defend 
his property, such as was in 1382, a stout English farmer called 
Richard Chamberlain, who held it in conjunctitm with the Arch- 
bishop's lands near Dundrum (i). 

About the middle of the sixteenth century portion of the lands 
of St. Scpulelne were leased by the Archbishop of Dublin to Sir 
Thomas Fitzwilliam, then described as of Baggotrath, and together 
with them the office of keeper of the wood of Cullcn upon the 
surrender of John de Bathe, by whom it was then held, was granted 
to him. At the beginning of the seventeenth century the wood of 
Cullen was held by Sir William Ussher, of Donnybrook, and at the 
time of the rebellion of 1641 the lands of Cullenswood were 
occupied by a yeoman called Thomas Ward. In depositions made 
bv Ward he recounts how in April, 1642, his house and offices at 
Cullenswood were totally destroyed by fire, how the rebels robbed 
him of sixteen cow^s, a bull, and eight horses ; how at the time 
Mr. Paniell, as related under Rathmines, was taken prisoner, he 
was taken also, but was let go on surrendering his arms ; and how 
subsequently at Powerscourt he saw a man wearing his sword (2). 

The ground now occupied by the Carmelite Convent of St. 
Joseph, close to the Dublin. Wicklow, and Wexford Railway, was 
in the eighteenth century tlie site of a house calhnl Willbrook. 
This house was for a number of years the residence of the Right 
Rev. William Barnard, successively Bishop of Raphoe and Derry, 
who, as a monument in Westminster Abbey records, after ruling the 
latter diocese for twenty years with great approbation, died in 1768 
in Loiido'i, whcic 1m- had gone for the luMiefiti of liis iiealtli. After 
the deatli of the liislio]), \\'illl)iook was taken by an organ I)u:lder 
from London with the object of its conversion into a. ])laee of 
public amusement, and soon the episcopal residence becann^ a grand 
house of entertainnuMit, with a theatre and gai-dens laid out with 



(') " Xotcs on llii- ^l:uior c.f St. Sr|inl(Iitr in I lie l^'mirlrcnt li Ccnliirv," I)y 
JanicM ^lills in ./o////((;/. /,'..S'..I./., vul. \i,\., pp. ."il. I lit; L'dth |:c|»irl ultlir Dcpulv 
Keeper of tlie i^'conls il) IrclaiKl, A|)P., p. ■")0 ; S\mc( niairs ('.iIcihI.u. I -iS.") <)'J, 
p. :{7''i. I'-".':'. K'.l)|. |i. 117: D". Minn's " Ili-tnlV nf the CiHiiily Ullliliri." p. 77!', 

" ('lijutiil.iiii- ril St. .M;iiy'^ .\lil>iy," \'<\. ii.. p. '^'>\. 

(■-:) Fi;iiil lvlu;iol \'l., \n. "il'-l: (';iltr I'apcr-. Mil. I \i., p. .'i 1 7 ; I >r pi i..it i(ins (if 
ICill t'l'linnia- Waul n| ( 'iilli-n-^wiMicI). 



110 PORTION OF THE PARISH OF ST. PETER. 

alcoves and bowers for tea drinkers. It was all modelled on Rane- 
lagli Gardens in London, and thus obtained the name of that 
fashionable resort. A fine band was constantly in attendance, the 
favourite vocalists of the day appeared in the theatre, and some of 
the earliest aeronauts niade their ascents from the gardens. Not 
far off there was then a tavern with the curious sign of '' The 
Bleeding Horse," and the neighbourhood was, on at least one 
occasion, the scene of a duel. 

The gardens disappeared after a comparatively short existence, 
but left their name impressed on part of the lands of Cullenswood, 
and the use of the name Sandford, derived from the foundation of 
Sandford Church by Lord Mountsandford, in connection with 
another part of the lands, has caused the name Cullenswood to 
become almost obsolete (i). 



MILLTOWN. 



The village of Milltown, which is situated close to the river Dodder, 
on the road from Dundrum to Dublin, still exhibits traces of anti- 
quity in an old bridge, now disused except for foot traffic, and in 
some large houses, which have seen more prospei'ous days. From a 
very early period it has been the scene of industrial enterprise, and 
until very recent years it was the site of water-mills, whose place 
is now taken by a steam laundry and dye works. So early as the 
fourteenth century the existence of a mill is mentioned in con- 
nection with the lands, then known as Milton, which were included 
within the manor of St. Sepulchre, joining on the north those of 
Rathmines and Cullenswood, and were held under the Archbishop 
by a family called Brigg, Hugo Brigg in 1326 and Henry Brigg in 
1382 being the tenants (2). 

The neighbourhood has always been celebrated for the excellence 
of the stone found in it, and during the sixteenth century a glimpse 
is afforded us of mediaeval quarrying operations carried on at Mill- 
town to provide stone for the repair of Christ Church Cathedral. 



(M Leases in Registry of Deeds Office ; Cotton's " Fasti Ecclesire Hibernice " ; 
Pwt'.s Occurrence-'^, vol. Ixv., No. 0720 ; O'Keeffe's " Recolleetions of his Life," 
vol. i., p. 291 ; DuUin Gazette, No. 2727 ; Dublin Chronicle, 1787-1788, pp. 181, 
183. 

(-) "Notices of the Manor of St. Sepulchre in the Fourteenth Century," by 
James Mills, vol. xix., pp. 31, 119. 



MILLTOWN. 



Ill 



These operations were conducted under the direction of a famous 
ecclesiastical architect, Sir Peter Lewys, the builder of the bridge 
of Athlonc, who was precentor as well as restorer of the Cathedral. 
In an interesting memoir of Lewys, the present Assistant Keeper of 
the Public Records of Ireland, has explained that the stone was 
cut out of the bed of the river by means of iron tools kept pointed 
by a smith who was always in attendance, and, as the accompanying 
illustration shows, distinct traces of these operations are still to be 
seen near the foundation of the old bridge. In order to allow the 




The Old Bridge of Milltown. 

From a l'}toto(jraph hy Mr. Lujiiard R Stratigwaifs. 

stonecutt-ers to cut the rock, llie river had to be diverted from its 
course, and, needless to say, in spite of dams and bowls for baling 
out the water, the work was carried on with extreme difficulty. 
One day a bank of earth fell on a mason, whoso life was only saved 
" with much ado," and on another occasion, owing to autumn rains, 
the Dodder rose to such a height that it carried away all protection 
for the craftsmen (i). 

At tlic time of the Rebellion of IfVIl, wlicn tiir lands of Mill- 
town belongcfl lo tlir l.oftuscs of Rathfaiiili.nn, a miller, .lolm 



(') "Sir I'l ii I Lewys," liy Ikiiiy i'. lUiiy in Triumadiuns Qunliiur Coroiuili 
Lodge, vol. xv., p. 4. 



112 PORTION OF THE PARISH OF ST. PETER. 

Bacon by name, was the principal resident at Milltown, and in 
depositions made by him he recounts the loss of sundry horses of 
English breed used by him in his trade, as well as of cows, and tells 
how after he had taken refuge in Dublin his house was coinpletely 
demolished. In order to keep the rebels in check a troop of horse 
under the command of one Hugh Booth, was stationed afterwards 
at Milltown, but while patrolling the country in June, 1642, Booth 
was surprised near Merrion by a party of the Irish Army under 
tlie command of Captain Bernard Talbot, and after twelve of his 
men had run away and two had been killed, hci was taken prisoner, 
with the other three, and carried off to Arklow, where he was kept 
a close prisoner in daily fear of death for twenty-two weeks. Under 
the Commonwealth, when the population of Milltown was returned 
as fourteen inhabitants of English birth and five of Irish, Milltown 
continued in possession of Sir Adam Loftus, of Rathfarnham (i). 

During the eighteenth century Milltown, which became then the 
property of the Leeson family, ennobled under the title of Earl of 
Milltown, was the seat of various manufactures. Amongst the 
mills mentioned as existing there at different times were two* corn 
mills, a brass mill, an iron mill, a paper mill, and a mill for grinding 
dry woods. One of the best quarries for limestone in the County 
Dublin was near Milltown Bridge, where there is safid to have been 
a rath ; and the manufacture of garden pots was also carried on 
by " the ingenious Mr. Heavisid." Until the latter part of the 
century, when Classen's Bridge, near Old Rathmines, was built 
by Ml". John Classen, the owner of the mill for grinding dry woods, 
the only means of crossing the Dodder was by means of the old 
bridge, which was too narrow for vehicle traffic, and by a ford, 
where the present bridge of Milltown is built. This ford was the 
cause of loss of life, as persons on horseback were reluctant to 
make the short detour necessary to cross by the old bridge, and 
were sometimes carried away by the rapid waters of the Dodder 
when in flood. Thus in 1756 a countryman and boy going on 
horseback to Powerscourt, though warned not to make the attempt 
to cross the ford, persisted in doing so, and were carried away and 
drowned, and in 1782 Mr. Clarke, the steward of the Home of 
Industry, met his death in the same way, the occurrence being re- 
markable, as his daughter, and only child, had been drowned in 
the Dodder a year before. The ascent from the ford was also 



(') Depositions of KUl (John Bacon of Milltown and Hugh Booth of the City 
of Dublin) ; Census of 1()59 ; Book of Survey in Public Record Ot!ice. 



MILLTOWN. 113 



dangerous and steep, and in 1787 a child on the roof of a mourning 
coach accompanying a funeral to Dundrum was thrown off there 
and killed on the spot (i). 

Milltown is stated in that century to have been a large and plea- 
sant village, much frequented by the citizens of Dublin, and a. gi'eat 
thoroughfare for pleasure parties going to Powerscourt. Thither 
from time to time the populace was attracted by advertisements of 
sports; in June, 1728, a race foi- grass fed horses, not exceeding £6 
in value, from John Burr's, in Milltown, to the Cock in St. Kevin's 
Pox't, with a saddle as first prize and a bridle as second, is 
announced : and in -Tnly, 1758, races for horses and also for girls, 
with a prize of a cap and ribbons, for which entries were to be made 
at the Phoenix at Milltown, were to take place. But, doubtless, 
even greater crowds assembled at Milltown in November, 1753, to 
see the punishment of William Kallendar, who, for a rescue, was 
so severely whipped from Milltown to Dundrum that he died a 
few days later iu Newgate Prison, leaving, as the newspaper records, 
a v.-ife and five small children to mourn his loss. Amongst the 
inhabitants we find Mr. Hugh Johnston, who, in 1727, was made a 
magistrate for the metropolitan county ; Mr. John Randall, the 
owner of the paper mill, '" a man of very good character," who in 
175^; was thrown from his horse and killed; Mr. Dogherty, the 
owner of the iron mill, who in 1758 was found dead in his bed; 
]\rr. Robert Tomlinson, whose house in 1779 was attacked and 
plundered in the middle of the day by a set of desperate villains; 
the Viscount St. Lawrence, who in 1 783 was residing near Mill- 
town ; and the Ladies Eleanor and Isabella King, daughters of the 
first Earl of Kingston, who were visited in 1797 in a house near 
Milltown left them by a Mrs. Walcot, by the diarist already men- 
tioned in connection with Seapoint, who drove- out from Dublin in 
a green chaise to sec them (-). 



(1) Teases in Registry of Deeds Office; Exfh((|inr- liill : DnhJ'nt Joiirmil. .Xo. 
ni\-2; Diihli)) Chronirlr, ITSS-lTSit. p. <»()!); Kiitly's " .Xaturai History of tiie 
County Dublin," vol. i.. ]>. \r.\ : Dnhlin ('lin>nif!(\ ITS? ITSS, ))p. ;5.")i», 4r)l ; Pncs 
Occurrences, vol. jiii.. No. :{ ; llihirninn Mngazinr for 1 T^ii, p. .")."»!. 

(2) lewis's Dublin Guide, p. IHC) ; Dnhlin Penny .Jnurnul, vol. iii., p. 372; 
Irish Penny Jonrmtl, vol. i., p. 2X1 ; Warrants for Magistrates in Public Record 
Office; Dublin WeeHi/ . Journal, IHtli June, lT2Si; Pite's Ocriirrenccs, vol. 1., Xo. 
{)•>, vol. li., Xo. SO. vol. Iv.. Xo. ."),S, vol. Ivi., Xo. ItS : K.xsliaw's MarrayiiK- for 177i>, 
p. '4«7; Dublin. /oiiru'il, Xo. (i(i;j:J ; MS. Diary of'Ale.xander HaMiiltoii, k.< ., i.i..n. 



114 PARISH OF RATHFARNHA.M. 



Parish of Rathfarnham. 

(i.e., Ratk-Fcni<t)ni(nii or F'lnian' v ll<itli.) 
■ ♦- 

The Parish of Rathfarnham in the seventeenth century appears as containing the 
Townhinds of Kathfariihani, Tereniire, Kininiage, Rathgar, Little Newtown, 
liiittertirld. Seholarstown, and St. John's Leas. 

It now contains the Townlands of Ballyroan (/.("., Baile Ruadhain. or Rowan's 
Townland), Butterfiehl, Kiiuniage, Newtown Little, OUl Orciiard, Rathfarn- 
ham, Rathgar {i.e., Ratli-gearr, or Siiort Rath), Seholarstown, Terenure {i.e., 
Tir-an-iubhair, or the Land of the Yew), Whitehall, and Willbrook. 

The objects of archaeological interest in the Parish are the Castle of Ratiifarnliam 
and a fragment of the Old Church. 



RATHFARNHAM AND ITS CASTLE. 

The Castle of Rathfarnham, formerly the seat of the Right Hon. 
Francis Blackburne, sometime^ Lord Chancellor of Ireland, and still 
in the occupation of his descendants, is one of the few fine residences 
of any antiquity in the metrojoolitan county. It was originally a 
fortified and embattled structure built in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth by that great legal ecclesiastic, Archbishop Loftus, but 
owing to alterations in the eighteenth century carried out in a 
Grecian style of architecture, it now presents the ajDpearance of a 
modern house. 

This castle is not the first dwelling which has occupied its site. 
Soon after the Anglo-Norman Conquest the lands of Rathfarnham, 
then joining on the north those within the manor of St. Sepulchre 
and on the east those within the parish of Taney, had been given 
to a family called le Bret, and during their ownership, which lasted 
for many generations, a manorial residence stood ui^on their pro- 
perty. They were people of importance amongst the early settlers, 
and, in addition to Rathfarnham, became possessed of estates 
in Tippcrary and Cork. The first of the family connected with 
Rathfarnham was Milo le Bret, to whom in 1199 a grant of 
the lands was made. His name appears amongst the magnates of 
Ireland, and he was personally known to King John, at whose 
courb in England he was, on at least one occasion, a visitor. 



RATHFARNHAJI AND ITS CASTLE. 



115 







^-O 



u 






1) O 






I 2 



116 PARISH OF RATHFARNHAM. 

Towards the close of the thirteenth century, after the lands had 
been held by Walter le Bret, who in 1269 made a perpetual assign- 
ment of a> portion of them now known as Kimmage, Geoffrey le 
Bret appears as the proprietor of the manor of Rathfarnham, for 
which he rendered military service valued at 68x. to the Crown. 
He saw much service as' a. soldier. During a period of twenty years 
he was one of those i^esponsible for the protection of the marches 
of Dublin, and large sums were from time to' time paid to him for 
expenses incurred in resisting the enemies of the Crown at Saggard, 
Newcastle, and other places. In these operations he gained so 
high a reputation foi' bravery that it reached the English Court. 
In 1297 ho was included by Edward I. amongst the liegemen in 
Ireland whom that monarch summoned to assist him in his war 
against France, — promising as an incentive tO' prompt compliance 
that he would keep them close to his side. Again in 1302 le Bret 
was honoured with a similar command to join in the war against 
Scotland. 

The lands of Rathfarnham were occupied, under their owners, 
by the great Danish clan of Harold, who, with the Walshes and the 
Archbolds, then held so much of the lands bordering on thei terri- 
tory of the hillsmen. Their occupation was sometimes only 
rendered possible by illegal compacts with their neighbours, and 
in 1305 Richard, son of Reginald Harold, paid a fine because Rath- 
farnham had afforded shelter to' some of the foes of the Crown. 
The owners of Rathfarnham were then resident in Cork. Milo, 
son of Geoffrey le Bret, who in 1320 granted to his legal adviser, 
John Graunteste. a yearly rent charge of 20.s-. and a robe of pro- 
portionate value out of the lands of Rathfarnham, was Sheriff of 
Cork, and his grandson, John le Bret, filled the same position. On 
account of an apprehended invasion of tlie O'Byrnes, the latter was 
ordered in 1356 to proceed with his followers fully armed in martial 
array to his manor of Rathfarnham, a.nd in 1375 he was given 
license to remove corn from his house at Rathfarnham for his own 
use. 

The existence towards the close of the fourteenth century of a 
bridge across the Dodder at Rathfarnham is indicated by a bequest 
in the will, executed in 1381, of a certain Joan Douce, of St. 
Audoen's Parish, in Dublin, of one mark towards its construction. 
At the beginning of the fifteenth century the Harolds still appear 
as tenants, and the lands were in the hands of the Crown owing 
to the death of John, son of Geoffrey le Bret. In 1415 they were 
committed to the custody of James Fitzwilliam, the first owner 



RATHFARNHAM AND ITS CASTlE. 



117 



of Merriou of his name. Subsequently, owing to the death of 
one John Galvey, two parts of the lands were connnitted in 1423 
to Thomas Hall, and in 1424 to James Cornwalsh, the Chief Baron 
of the Exchequer, who met his doatli in the Castle of Baggot- 
rath (1). 

At the tini.e they came into the possession of Archbishop Loftus 
the lands of Rathfarnliani. which had })assed from the Brets to 
the Eustace family, were, like Monkstown, in the hands of the 
Crown, owing to the rebellion of James Eustace, third Viscount 
Baltinglass, and before obtaining the custody of the Castle of 
Monkstown, Sir Henry Wallop, the Earl of Portsmouth's aiu'cstor. 




Rathfarnhuni Castle. 

Finm (I I'lxild'jnijih bij 'rii<iin(is Mason. 

li.id ap))li('d fur a lease of tliem. A few months later, in the 
.•iiiliiiiin ijf 1 ;j(S2, iXi'chbishop l.dt'tiis was sdlicitiiig a lease- of sniiic ct' 
the lands forfeited duiiiig the DesiiiDiid llchcllidii, and lliongh i'dr 
H time his petition was witluh'awn, this application was probably 



(') " 1'lic N'oniuin KcttlenuMit in I.rin^tiT." hy .Fanii's Mills, .Iciininl. U.S.A. I.. 
vol. ,\.\iv., |). Hi."); Swcfliiunr , ( ali nil.ii : I'Icm and .Mcniniiuiila llnlU; I'liiciit 
liolls, J)]). r,1, !».-,, ICT, |r,s, ITm ITI, l'JT, •-':'.! ; llalMl.iy lliid- |ii(-,(i \ cl in IInN.il 
Irisli .\( iidcni V. 



118 



PAEISH OF RATHFARNHAM. 



llie origin of the grant of Rathfarnhani to him. Owing tO' the 
incursions of the hillsmen it was then described as a waste village, 
and the original castle, if it remained at all, can have been only a 
ruin. But within two years of his acquiring the property Arch- 
bishop Loftus had built the castle which has come down ;:o the 
present day — an edifice of such magnificence in the opinion of a 
contemporary w-riter as would for all time be a monument to the 
greatness and grandeur of its builder. According to the patent of 
a peerage conferred on one of his descendants the object of its 
erection was to protect the English subjects of the Crown, but as 




Archbishop Loftus. 

From an Engraving in the 2MSScssto7i of the Rev. William Bey n ell. 

the Archbishop, owing to the disturbed state of the neighbourhood, 
had shortly before been obliged to vacate liis^ episcopal seat at 
Tallagh, it is probable that it was part of his design to provide a 
country residence for himself. 



Archbishop Loftus, who was a native of Yorkshire, had come to 
Ireland in the train of the Earl of Sussex, who was appointed 
Lord Lieutenant soon after the accession of Queen Elizabeth, 
and had subsequently become Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral 
and Archbishop of Armagh. That diocese was then in a distracted 
state, and in 1567 he was translated to Dublin — in those days 
the most important and valuable of the Ii'ish archbishoprics. For 
more than thirty-seven years he held the latter See, and with it for 



RATHFARNHAM AXn ITS CASTLE. 119 



twenty-four years the office of Lord Chancellor, to which he was 
appointed after having been on several occasions the temporary 
custodian of the Great Seal. Loftus stands out amongst his fellows 
as a man of singular ability, with a reputation as an eloquent 
preacher, and in his successful opposition to the diversion of the 
revenues of St. Patrick's Cathedral to the establishment of a 
university, as well as in the assistance which he gave towards the 
fcnmdation of Trinity College, of which he was the first pi'ovost, 
he exhibited both high principle and independence of character. 
In his time such offices as he held gave power and influence beyond 
anything possible in the present day. These advantages ho used, 
undoubtedly, for his own advancement and that of his family, al- 
though, probably not to a greater degree than others in a similar 
position would have done. 

Loftus took up his residence at Rathfarnham in the year 1580, 
when he had incurred much enmity by his opposition to the 
diversion of the endowment of St. Patrick's Cathedral for educa- 
tional purposes, and his establishment there, and the nominal 
rent of 30.v., for which he was granted the fee farm of the lands, 
gave rise to many malicious allegations. In that year he found it 
necessary to write to Lord Burghley to explain how he had means 
to build a house, and some years later it was said that, while causes 
were pending before him, " angels, beasts of the field, and biids of 
the air did fly and run to Rathfarnham." As has been mentioned, 
the castle was considered a stately residence, and an occasional 
reference shows that its contents were in keeping with it. Couches 
such as were made for the Archbishop in Ireland were thought 
worthy of a place in the home of Lord Burghley 's illustrious son, 
the first Earl of Salisbury, as was also a deer's head, '" the rare 
greatness " of which had caused the Archbishop to have it hung 
in the hall of "' his poor house," and which he wishes might be the 
most remai'kable curiosity in Christendom iji order that his love 
to his friend might be the more evident. In every room basins 
and ewers of pure silver were to be seen, in some great standing 
white bowls and others of a smaller size attracted the eye, and 
after the deafli of Que(>n Elizabeth the buffet was adorned with 
three handsome cuj)s made out of hei' Ii-ish Creat Seal. 

Archbishop Loftus had an enoimous family of twenlv children. 
f)nlv four of his sons cani(\ howevei', to man's estate, and of these 
but two survived him. All f(nii' served in the .iiinv, aud il was 
in 1lie wais in Ireland lowaids ihe end (if (^ueen Eli/.ahet h'.s 
reign tiiat tiie two who died hef.jie their f.ilhei- iiiel (heir ijealhs. 



120 PARISH OF RATHFARNHAM. 

Lord Deputy Fitzwilliam knighted the eldest, and the unfortunate 
Earl of Essex, on his hurried departure from Ireland, after appoint- 
ing the Archbishop to act in his absence as a Lord Justice, stayed 
a moment on the sands before taking ship to confer a similar 
honour on two of the younger. Seven of the Archbishop's 
daughters were married — some of them more than once — finding 
husbands in the families of, amongst others, CoUey, Blaney, 
Berkeley, Colclough, Moore, Warren, and Ussher. In these alli- 
ances and in others, which, it was said, were contemplated, the 
ArchbishoiD's enemies saw grounds for accusations against him of 
an attempt to secure an indispensable position in the government 
of Ireland (i). 

The Archbishop's eldest son. Sir Dudley Loftus, whose marriage 
to a daughter of Sir Nicholas Bagenal had alsoi afforded occasion 
for suspicious whispering on the part of his father's enemies, suc- 
ceeded to Rathfarnham in 1605 on his father's death. In early 
life he isi saiid tO' have been an honest young gentleman, " both 
loved and well disposed," and during the military operations in 
Ulster, as captain of a troop of horse, he displayed conspicuous 
valour. It was for the part which he took in an engagement near 
Beleek, when after his horse had been killed under him he slew 
with his own hand twelve of the enemy, that he was knighted by 
Lord Deputy Fitzwilliam, and subsequently he was employed in 
seveiral expeditions in which he spared himself neither toil nor 
hardship. He does not appear to have been prominent in public 
affairs after his father's death, and resided principally in the 
suppressed preceptory of Kilcloggan, in the County of Wexford, 
which had been granted to him, and where in 1616, at the age of 
fifty-five, he died {-). 

Rathfarnham Castle was in Sir Dudley Loftus's time occupied 
temporarily by the Right Hon. Sir Thomas Ridgeway, then Trea- 
surer for Ireland, and afterwards created Earl of Londonderry, who 
in September 1611 dates a letter on affairs of State to the Earl 
of Salisbury from Rathfarnham, but on Sir Dudley's death, as hisi 



(') Calcndai- of Carew State Papers, 1575-1588, p :{7(); " Dictionary of National 
Biot;rai)hy," vol. xxxiv., p. 73; Calendar of Irisli State Pajjors ; Manuscripts of 
the Marquis of Salisbury, pt. vii., p. 31, published by the Historical Manuscripts 
Commission ; " The Description of Ireland in 1598," edited by Rev. Edmund 
Hogan, pp. 37, 43 ; Papers relating to Archbishop Loftus from the Library of 
l)v. Reeves in Trinity ('ollege Library ; Borlase's " Reduction of Iicland," pj). 
148, 180; Will of Archbishoj) Loftus"; Lodge's Peerage, vol. vii., p. 249; Met- 
calfe's " Book of Knights," pp. 208, 210. 

(-) Calendar of Irish State Papers; Funeral Entry. 



RaThfarnham and its castle. 121 

Wexford pro^Jcrty went to a younger son, the Castle became the 
constant residence of Sir Adam Loftus, who succeeded Sir Dudley 
there as his eldest son. Although a time-serving politician, Sir 
Adam Loftus was one of the most able of the Archbishop's 
descendants, and has the proud distinction of being the father of 
Dr. Dudley Loftus, the famous Oriental scholar. He enjoyed the 
friendship of the leading people in Ireland in his day. Sir Arthur 
Chichester, the planter of Ulster, conferred the honour of knight- 
hood on him in 1610, when he was barely of age, and appointed 
him Constable of Maryborough Castle. The great Earl of Cork, 
the most striking personality of that time, gave the hand of one 
of his daughters in marriage to his eldest son. The great Earl's 
cousins, Sir William Parsons, the well-known governor of Ireland 
at the time of the Rebellion, and Sir Laux'ence Parsons, ancestor 
of the jDresent Earl of Rosse, who was a Baron of the Exchequer, 
and is said to have died in 1628 at Rathfaruham, both held Loftus 
in esteem, and became related to him by the marriage of their 
eldest sons to two of his daughters. And the mighty Earl of 
Strafford conceived a strong affection for him, regarding him as 
a man of intcgi-ity and capacity. 

The career of Loftus for many years was bound up with that of 
the Earl of Cork, and in the gi-eat Earl's quaint business diary and 
correspondence he is frequently mentioned. There the tale is told 
of the unromantic marriage of his son to the Earl's daughter. The 
first reference to Sir Adam is an account of a conversation between 
Sir Adam and Sir Laurence Parsons, who acted as the gx-eat Earl's 
confidential legal adviser, regarding a widowed daughter of the 
Earl whom Sir Adam desired to receive at Rathfaruham. Then 
a year later the betrothal of Sir Adam's eldest son, Arthur Loftus, 
to the EaiTs daughtei-, Ddrotliy, hum six years before in Sir 
Walter Raleigh's house at Youghal, was accomplished, and the 
first instalment of her marriage portion of £3,000 was paid to her 
future father-in-law. Soon afterwards young Loftus went to reside 
at Lismore, and the little girl with her French attendant came to 
Rathfarnham. Then the youth went in the Earl's tram to Eng- 
land, where he fell sick of the smallpox, and was provided with 
money (which the Earl was careful t<> have refunded), and with 
the use of the Earl's medicine chest, and Ixcamc llic constant 
companion of the Earl's son, whom lie accompanied to Oxford. And 
fiiiallv on Shrove Mondav, I IJiiL', the girl In ide, then <inly fourteen 
years of age, was married, as the Karl records, hy the good Primate 
Ussher in |{a1 hfaiiiham Castle to the hnshand '<\' her [)arenl's 

choice. 



122 



PARISH OF RATHFAENHAM. 



A few months after this marriage had been arranged Sir Adam 
Loftus became, jointly with a member of the Parsons' family, 
Surveyor-General of Ireland and an official of the Court of Wards. 
He subsequently acted as a keeper of the Great Seal during the 
absence of his cousin, Viscount Ely, then Chancellor of Ireland, 
and was made a member of the Privy Council. While the Earl of 
Cork was a Lord Justice, before the arrival of the Earl of Strafford, 
Sir Adam Loftus was at his right hand. We find him riding with 




The Hall of Rathfarnham Castle. 

From a Photograph by Thomas Mason. 



the Eari and Sir William Parsons on more than one occasion to 
give orders for the rebuilding of Maynooth Castle, and being lent 
by the Eai'l one of his two precious copies of Stafford's "' Pacata 
Hibernia." But no sooner had the Earl of Strafford landed than 
Sir Adam began to worship the rising sun. He obtained a seat 
as member for the borough of Gorey in the Parliaments held under 
Strafford; and Charles I., in response to a recj^uest from Strafford 



RATHFARNHAM AND ITS CASTLE. 123 



that he would give Sir Adam " a scratch of the pen," sent him a 
gracious message of thanks for the help wliicli he had rendered to 
his Viceroy in the Privy Council. In spite of his devotion to 
Strafford, Sir Adam managed to retain the Earl of Cork's goodwill. 
With the great Earl's approval lie was appointed Vice-Treasurer of 
Ireland, and the Earl relates that, when going to take the oaths 
of office. Sir Adam, who was accompanied by all the judges, many 
of the Privy Council, and very many of the Lord Deputy's gentle- 
men mounted on his great horses, rode between him as Lord Trea- 
surer and Strafford's son. When the clispute between Strafford 
and the Earl arose, Sir Adam was instant in urging the Earl to 
submit himself to Strafford's judgment, and probably from that 
time they drifted more and more apart, until at last the Earl 
recorded that Sir Adam had used him uncivilly, and spoke to him 
in a harsh and displeasing manner. 

Sir Adani Loftus took an active part in the proceedings insti- 
tuted by Strafford against his cousin, the Lord Chancellor, and 
from letters written to him by Strafford from the Tower of London 
he appears to have been one of the few in Ireland on whom 
Strafford thought he could rely. But Strafford's execution was 
not long a thing of the past when Sir Adam became deep in the 
councils of the Parliament. In this line he was followed, doubt- 
less to the unspeakable regret of the Earl of Cork, by his eldest 
son. Soon after Strafford's arrival in 1634 Arthur Loftus had 
received from him knighthood, and in the same year — a year in 
which the Earl of Cork records his thanks to God for the birth of 
her first child to his daughter. Lady Dorothy Loftus, at Rathfarn- 
ham- he was returned to Parliament as member for the borough 
of Enniscorthy. Subsequently Sir Arthur had a very unpleasant 
passage with his father-in-law touching a domestic squabble, in 
which he showed himself both " heady and untractable," to the 
Earl's gi-eat discontent- and is not again iiuMilioiuMl in tli(> Karl's 
correspondence or diaiy ('). 

On the outbreak of the Kel)ellion in IGll every ])recaution was 
taken to prevent Rathfarnham Castle falling- \u\n the hands of 
the rebels. All the Loftus family took u[) .nnis. Sir Adam 
Loftus and Sir Arthur Loftus commanded each a troop of horse, 
and, as they were engaged elsewhere, th(> care of the Castle was 



(') fill. Hilar <<i [rish State I'afKTS ; " Diitioiiary nf \aii(Uial T.io^irapliy." 
vol. .\lviii.. |). -JT!*: M.-tcalfc's " JiooU of Knitrlits." |.|). I'l-J. -Jl I : Carte I'apers. 
vol. l.xii., f. -JH : '• [.isiiiore Pai)ers " ; i^•tnrn <>!' Meinl)ers <it' Parliament :" Stnif- 
i'ur'i's l^ettcrs " idil.^il li\- William Knnuler. v.il. i.. |.|i. '.IS. '.I'.l. I I r.. \nl. ii.. |.|i. 
2<ill, 414, 41;j. 



124 PARISH OF RATHFARNHAM. 

committed to Sir Adam's second son, the learned Dudley Loftus, 
then just returned from his studies at Oxford. As its custodian, 
Dudley Loftus is said to have done good service in defending 
Dublin from the rebels, who swarmed down from the mountainous 
country. Amongst those who resorted to the Castle during that 
winter of disorder was an extraordinary genius called John Ogilby, 
who is said to have been nearly killed there by an explosion of 
gunpowder. Ogilby, who had been brought to Ireland by Strafford, 
as tutor to his children, and was then Master of the Revels, and 
owner of a theatre in Dublin, had gained some military training as 
a member of Strafford's guard of honour, but possibly the literary 
tastes which he displayed afterwards in the publication of various 
books, including the first guide to the roads of England — a noble 
folio volume — may have had something tO' do with his association 
with the scholarly custodian of Rathfarnham Castle. 

The state of siege in which the inhabitants of the Castle lived 
for several years may be gathered from tlie outrages committed in 
the immediate neighbourhood. In the Easter week following the 
outbreak of the Rebellion, one Henry Jones, the tenant of Scholars- 
town, was murdered, his body being found pierced with fourteen 
wounds. Soon afterwards some of the rebels came tO' the house of 
Henry Buttei-field, from whom, doubtless, the modern townland 
of Butterfield derives its name, and after killing one of his servants 
and robbing him of his cattle, carried off Butterfield to Powers- 
court, and there hanged him on a gallows. After the Cessation, 
when the great sweep of cattlei wasi made at Rathmines, Thoinas 
Wood, a tailor, and Ralph Morris, a wheelwright, both of Rathfarn- 
ham, were alsoi carried off to Powerscourt, but made good their 
escape the next day, not, however, before ropes had been placed 
round their necks and threats tO' hang them had been uttered . The 
owner of a cloth mill at Rathfarnham, John Iligginson by name, 
also suffered severely. He had contracted for the supply of trans- 
port for the artillery, and from time to time seventy-seven of the 
horses employed in that service were carried off from him at. 
Rathfarnham. During the Cessation, when he was building a mill 
at Rathfarnham, a notorious rebel, whom he had seen riding one 
of the horses which had been taken from him, threatened him, and 
subsequently his cloth mill was broken into. The caretaker and 
his family were assailed with shots and great stones, and the care- 
taker only saved his life by escaping through the sluice of the mill 
and taking refuge in the Castle. Besides the loss of cloth to the 
value of £60, Higginson's business was destroyed, as he tells us, by 
his customers being frightened away, and he was obliged to obtain 



EATHFARNHAM AND ITS CASTLE. 125 

soldiers to guard liis property at a cost of three sliillings weekly. 
About the same time the house of one Edward Thorpe, at Rath- 
farnham Bridge, was robbed, and his sei-\^ant maid lost licr eye- 
sight through shots fired by the burglars, and forty cows and six- 
teen horses belonging to Sir Adam Loftus were taken from the 
lands of Newtown by a party of the Confederate troops, who were 
called upon by the Marquis of Ormonde to make reparation for 
this violation of the Treaty of Cessation (i). 

During the two years succeeding the outbreak of the Rebellion 
Sir Adam. Loftus constantly attended the meetings of the Privy 
Council, aiui was one of the chief supporters of Sir William Par- 
sons and his brotlier Lords Justices ; and Sir Arthur Loftus, who 
had sent his family to England, continued to act as an officer in 
the King's Irish Army, serving as Lieutenant-Colonel of Sir 
Charles Coote's regiment and as Governor of Naas. When the 
Treaty of Cessation with the Irish was proposed both Sir Adam 
Loftus and his son joined in the opposition to it, and on account 
of their sympathy with the Parliament were imprisoned in Dublin 
Castle. Sir Adam Loftus underwent a prolonged confinement, 
owing to a public attack which he made on Lord Brabazou, the 
eldest son of the first Earl of Meath, for his loyalty to the King, 
but Sir Arthur Loftus was only detained for twenty-five weeks. 
Oi' reaching England they were received with every mark of favour 
by the Parliament. Sir Adam Loftus, besides being given a 
command in its ami}-, was appointed a Counsellor of State and 
Treasurer for War in Ireland, and Sir Arthur Loftus was given 
pennission to beat his drums in London for men to join in an 
expedition to relieve Duncannon Fort, and afterwards served with 
Lord Broghill in Munstcr. Biit evil times came then for the liouso 
of Loftus, and they were reduced to a state of extreme poverty. 
Sir Adam Loftus, whom Colonel Michael Jones earnestly desired, 
" as honest men were scarce," to have with him in Dublin, was a 
prisoner for debt in London, and subseqiientlv, while receiving a 
pension of 10-'>'. a week from the State, was obliged to ask for 
assistance to take his family to Dublin. Sir Adam Loftus, wlm 
was in an o(|ually impecunious state, on liis accounts as Treasurer 
(if Wai' failing to give satisfaction, was for a tinu- imprisoned, and 
was placed on a pension of £4 a week (-). 



P) Lodge's Pecrajic, vol. vii.. p. 2.')S ; " Dirtioiiary of National niofrrajjliy." 
v"l. xxxiv.. p. 70 ; vol. xlii., i>. I ( ; Depositions of Ki-H (.lolin II ij.'j.'iMS()n, 'I'lioinas 
W'odil, :iiiil H.ilpli Murtis of Ratlifai'iiliain) ; Cai'tc Papers, vol. xv., f. (>.S7. 

(-) Caleiiilai oi IiInIi Stale T'apers and of Doineslie State Papers ; ('art(> l*a])ers, 
vol. xi., pp. Mil. .").")('»: vol. Ixviii.. )). .")0:{ : Historical .Manuscrij)ts Connnission, 
Hepl. vii., .\|ip., pp. :!■-', :i7, I!e|if. viii.. p. ')'.)'. 



12& PARISH OF RATHFARNHAM 

Meantime Kathfarnliam Castle appears to have been derelict, 
except so far as it may have been occupied by the military. When 
in the summer of 1647 the Marquis of Ormonde surrendered 
Dublin to the Parliament it was suggested by Lord Digby that 
leave for him to remain in Ireland, with Rathfarnham as a 
residence, should be one of the conditions of surrender. Two 
years later, in July, 1649, as has been meiutioned under Rathmines, 
the Castle was garrisoned by the Parliament, and a few days before 
the disastrous Battle of Rathmines it was stormed and taken by 
the Royalist troops. All in it were made prisoners, and Ormonde, 
in a letter to Charles II., takes credit for the fact that although 
500 of his men obtained entrance into the Castle before an officer 
had done so, not a single member of the garrison was killed — a 
great contrast, he i-emarks, to the conduct of the soldiers of the 
Parliament on similar occasions. During the Commonwealth, Dr. 
Dudley Loftus, who held various offices of State, and was returned 
to the Parliament of 1659 as representative of the grouped 
Counties of Wicklow and Kildare, appears to have been recognised 
as the owner of the Castle. A considerable village then existed 
round it. A census of that period gives the number of the inhabi- 
tants of Rathfarnham as seventy persons, occupying twenty-two 
houses. Amongst these were three gentlemen, Mr. Darby 
Burgoyne, Mr. James Bishop, and Mr. William Graham, and the 
cottiers included a smith, a carman, and a cow herd, besides a 
gardener and a cooper, who were in Dr. Dudley Loftus's employ- 
ment. In addition, seventy-seven inhabitants, occupying twenty 
houses, are returned as residing in Butterfield. These included 
Mr. Robert Dixon, who had thirteen servants in his employment, 
a large farmer called Henry Walsh, two carmen, a brogue-maker, 
and a weaver. A strong wooden bridge across the river Dodder 
made communication with Dublin easy under ordinary circum- 
stances, but on more than one occasion it was carried away by the 
violence of the mountain torrents. The observant Dr. Gerald 
Boate, in " Ireland's Natural History," dwells on the tendency of 
the Dodder to rise suddenly, and says that although the bridge at 
Rathfarnham was so high that a man on horseback could ride 
under it, and the water was usually so shallow that a child could 
wade through it, the river rose frequently to such a height that it 
touched and even flowed over the bridge (i). 



(' ) Carto Papers, vol. xxi., p. 3.S0 ; Survey of Baronies of Up|)er Cross and New- 
castle, in Public Record Office ; Thorn's " Tracts relating to Ireland," vol. i., p. 
55. 



RATHFARNHAM AND ITS CASTLE. 



127 




a « 

c g 
<a 2 



c 
o 
o 
U 

if 

c 



a o 



128 PARISH OF RATHFARNHAM. 

At the time of tlie Restoration, Sir Adam Loftus had resumed 
possession of the Castle, which was then rated as containing eigh- 
teen hearths. His eldest son, Sir Arthur Loftus, had died shortly 
before, but Sir Arthur's sons, Adahi and Robert, are mentioned 
as resident with their grandfather. Amongst the other inhabi- 
tants about that time were Mr. Matthew Penoix, Mr. George 
Hopkins, Mr. William Denison, Mr. George Casborough, Mr. 
"William Dixon, of the Old Orchard ; Mr. Anthony Poulter, of 
Butterfield ; Mr. David Gibson, of Scholarstown ; Mr. Daniel 
Reading, of Stoughton's Farm ; Mr. Laurence Hudson, of New- 
town Little ; and Mr. Richard Greene, of the White House. After 
Sir Adam Loftus's death his daughter-in-law. Lady Dorothy 
Loftus, the widow of Sir Arthur Loftus, is returned as the occupier 
of the Castle, and obtained in 1665, from the Master of the Ord- 
nance six well-fixed firelock muskets for its protection. She died in 
1668, having married, as her second husband, a member of the 
Talbot family, and was succeeded by her eldest son (i). 

Adam Loftus, who appears as owner of Rathfarnham Castle after 
his mother's death, and who was raised to the joeerage as Baron 
Loftus of Rathfarnham and Viscount Lisburne. was one of the 
gallants of the gay court of Charles II. Soon after the Restora- 
tion, when he was returned to the Irish Parliament as member 
for the borough of Lismoi-e through the influence of his uncle, the 
second Earl of Cork, he figures as the survivor in a duel with one 
John Bromley, and only escaped from the sentence of the King's 
Bench that he should be burned in the hand by the intervention 
of the King. Some years later he appears as owner of an Irish 
wolf-hound which he brought to fight with an English mastiff before 
the Merry Monarch — an unfortunate passage, writes Viscount 
Conway to Sir George Rawdon, whom he beseeches for the credit of 
their country to find a better dog, as when the wolf-hound had 
almost overcome the mastiff he ran away, and the King laid a 
wager that there was not a dog of his breed that would not do the 
same. Abroad at Saumur we find him dancing attendance on a 
great lady of his day, and forming one of a colony of English 
people who brought out from England for their amusement such 
luxuries as a coach and six, a pack of hounds, and half a dozen 
riding horses. He appeared in Ireland in 1672 with a commission 
as Captain in the Army, seeking to raise 500 volunteers for the 
Duke of Monmouth's regiment, and two years later, when he was 
appointed Ranger of the Phoenix Park, he dated a letter (in which 
he mentions a severe family affliction) from Rathfarnham. 

(1) Hearth ^Money Roll ; Census of 1659 ; Will of Sir Arthur Loftus ; Orinoiide 
Papers, vol. i., p. 323, i)ublishecl by Historical Manuscripts Commission. 



RATHFARNHAM AND ITS CASTLE. 1*29 



About this time there died a maiden daughter of Sir Adam 
Loftus, Grizzel by name, from whom portion of the Rathfarnham 
demesne derives its appellation of GrizzcTs Paddock. She mentions 
m her will numerous relatives to whom she bequeaths various 
remembrances, including her gold bodkin, her caudle cup and 
chafing dish, her father's picture, her porcelain and china, and her 
essence box with her arms; but, as a person of puritan sympathies, 
she evidently viewed with disfavour her nephew's mode of life, 
and refers to him with great reserve as Adam Loftus, Esq., of 
Rathfarnham. Her minister, Mr. Isaac Smith, is far more 
favoured, and, in addition to being bequeathed two' silver powder 
boxes, is given a reversionary interest in the lease of the fai"m of 
Woodtown, which she had been granted by her father. It was to 
James II. that Adam Loftus ow-ed his creation, in 1686, as a peer, 
but at the Revolution he espoused the cause of William III. In 
the service of that monarch he lost his life. lie joined King 
William's Irish Army as Colonel of a regiment of foot, and in that 
capacity displayed heroic conduct at the taking of Carrickfergus 
Fort, the Battle of Aughrim, and the Siege of Limerick. His 
bravery thei'e was the cause of his death. Ho had directed his 
tent to be pitched as near the walls of the city as possible in the 
trenches, and when coming out of it one day in the month of 
September, 1691, he was killed by a cannon ball — a messenger of 
death wdiich was afterwards carefully gilded and hung" over tho 
tomb of his family in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, where he 
was interred (i). 

By his wife Lucia, daughter of George, sixth Lord Chandos, 
Viscount Lisburne had an only surviving child, a daughter, who' 
bore her mother's name, and by this daughter's marriage a year 
after her father's death, to Thomas, Marquis of Wharton, Rath- 
farnham Castle became the property of the Wharton family. Of 
l!h- ^larquis of Wharton, the gi'eatest rake and one of llie l)usiest 
politicians of his day, and of his wife, who, tinder an affectation of 
prudery, is said to have been equally uns<TU])ul()Us, Railifaiiiliani 
Castle, which provided him, on an elevation in the peerage, with 
tho title of Earl of Rathfaiiihani, saw little. lie filled for a time 
the office of Lord Lieutenant, but four months' residence in Ireland 



(' ) Hctiiiii ot Mi-inl)cr-s of I'arlianiciit : CalciulMr of Ciiilc I'aprrs iimlci- dalc.^ 
.\pril 2"), anri ()<f. -JT, lli(>:i: .Ian. 24, KICC. atul Maicli IT. lt)74 ; " 'I'lic Kawdoii 
Papers," cditiil liy Hi'v IvlwanI ({cruick, p. ■_'.■{) ; Historical Maini.siripts Com- 
missioii. Ki p(. \i.. \|>p.. pt. i.. p. 'M\H ■ Kepi, vii., .\p]>.. pf. ii., p. 78!); i^ojit. x., 
.\pp., i)t. v., p. Kil ; .Moiita^rii .Manuscripts, j). MM: Will of Ori/./.cl l.ofliis; 
Lodgcrt Peerage, vol, vii., p. 2(i.'{ ; ('fd(')i(lur i)uinestie State I'api'rs. 

K 



130 PARISH OF RATHFARNHAM. 



was all he thought the duties of his office required. His eldest 
son, Philip, who was created Duke of Wharton, and who succeeded 
his father in 1716, when only seventeen years of age, was even 
more profligate, and within eight years of his coming into pos- 
session of the property was obliged to sell a great portion of his 
estates, including his estate at Rathfarnham. The latter com- 
prised, beside the castle and demesne, a gi'eat extent of lands in 
the parishes of Rathfarnham, Whitechurch, Cruagh, and Tallaght, 
and after a report that it had been disposed of for £85,000 to 
Viscount Chetwynd, it was sold for £62,000 to the Right Hon. 
William Conolly, Speaker of the Irish House of Commons (}). 

The village of Rathfarnham, which is said to have been in 1665 
the birth-place of Robert Wilks, one of the most distinguished 
actors of his day, whose father was attached to the Viceregal Court, 
was at the close of the seventeenth, and for part of the eigh- 
teenth century, a fashionable health resort. While Bishop of 
Derry in the spring of 1697, the good Dr. William King retired 
there, after a long illness, in order to escape the atmosphere and 
bustle of Dublin, which he could not endure, and to spend his time 
free from business and company in the open air ; and in the next 
year that most erratic of men, John Dunton, the travelling book- 
seller, while carrying on his scuffle with his Dublin brethren, some- 
times took a ramble there to^ recruit himself in country scenes. 
The curious signs and place names which appear in old leases 
indicate the popularity of the place : the Sign of the Sun, the Black 
Lion, the Flower Pot, the Booly or Cow AValk, Hanover Hall, the 
Sally Park, the Spa Walk, the Roll of Tobacco, the White House, 
the Coffee House, and the Stake Field, are to be found amongst 
others. There is a tradition that some of Dean Swift's nublica- 
tions issued from a printing press in the village, and a ballad 
on the neighbouring Spa. at Templeoge published in 1730 pro- 
fesses to have been printed at the Cherry Tree in Rathfarnham — 
a name which is mentioned in a deed of the period. In the 
spring of 1728 great rains prevailed, which resulted in the bridge 
of Rathfarnham being broken down and part of the deer park wall 
being carried away ; in the next year Rathfarnham was troubled 
by an invasion of monster rats similar to those which appeared in 
Merrion ; in 1730 Ambrose Kimberley was executed for the abduc- 
tion of the daughter of Mr. Daniel Reading, of London, from the 



(') "Dictionary of National Bio^rapliv." vol. Ix., pp. 410, 418; "Letters to 
and from BishoT) Nicholson," vol. ii., p. 527 ; D' Alton's '' History of the County 
Dublin," p. 787. 



RATHFARNHAM AND ITS CASTLE. 



131 



house of her nurse at Rathfarnham ; aud in the suinnicr of 1740 
au extraordinary shower of rain resembling bhiod in colour fell 
there (i). 

During the early part of the eighteenth century the handsome 
mansion, what now forms the centre of the fine pile of buildings at 
Rathfarnham occupied by the Loretto Convent, was erected, and 
round it extensive gardens, orchards, and a deer park were laid 
out. This mansion, which is approached by a high flight of steps 
and is built of red brick, presents the appearance of a dwelling on 




The Loretto Convent, Rathtarnhani. 

From a Fhulo'jrujjh by llwimiii Musun. 

which money has been lavishly expended, and the receptidii inniiis, 
which display ornate ceilings, wide doors of shining mahogany, and 
curious leather wall ))aper, are apartments of great magnificence. 
Its builder was a gentleman nf much wealth, Mr. William Talliser, 
the only son of the Archbishop of Cashel of that name, whose 
memoi-y is pi-cserved in the " Hibliotheca Paliiscriana,'' which he 
bequeathed to the Library of Trinity Coll(\ge. IMr. William Palliser, 



{') ■■ l^iilitiiiary ot Xatiniial l)i(>;iia|)li\-," Mil. \\i.. |). •_':{(■>; \iil. l\i., )i. 2S(t ; 
f'orrespori(l<'iic(^ of Arclihisliop Kinj; iiii<lcr .Manli ami .\|iiil, HiMT, in 'I'r-iiiity 
Collcgt; r.,il)rary ; Dimloii's "Dublin Scnfllc," p. ;'.Ti ; Leases in l\cf;istry t)f 
I>(;(-fls Office; " Ratiitaniiiam," hy Hcv. ('aiieii ('.m m .V' //' Inlnihl /I'rricw, vol. 
xii., )). (i : llaliila\ 'I'laets, vol. it."), |)icsci\c(i in Itoyal Irish Aeailenix': Diihlin, 
flfizd/i, M.uvl, :;u, ,,n'l .\pril !•, I Tl'S ; F/i/lnif I'lisl, .Ahiy H>. IT"-'!* ; Irisii l'ain|)iilels 
in 'I'l-iiiity i'oWv^y lalnary. \ "I. v., IT. I T'_', IM. I s:! : I'lh'.s < >rr nrrc ik'is, vol. 
.\.\,\vii., JS'o. 5"). 

IC -1 



132 



PARISH OF RATHFARNHAM. 



■who was himself interested in scientific and literary pursuits, and 
his wife enjoyed widei popularity; his recovery from serious ill- 
ness in 1747 is announced as giving great joy to all his friends; 
and by the death of his wife, a gentlewomau of exemplary piety 
and virtue, and of a most benevolent and humane disposition, in 
1762, her acquaintances are said to have lost an agreeable and 
valued friend, and the poor a kind benefactress (i). Not far from 
Mr. Palliser's house was the residence of the Worth family. This 
had been originally occujoied by the Honble. William Worth, who 




The Drawing Room in tlie Loretto Convent, Rattifarnham. 

i'rom a PJiotograph hy Thomas Mason, 

had a seat on the Bench as a Baron of the Exchequer in the 
closing years of the reign of Charles II., and retained it for four 
years after the accession of James II. Worth was on terms of inti- 
macy with Lord Clarendon, and having followed that nobleman in 
his tortuous proceedings during the Revolution, failed to obtain 
reinstatement in his judicial position from William III. Ho took 
to himself no less than four wives, through one of whom he 



(') "Mrs. Ball, a Biography," by the Rev. William Hutch, p. <S() ; Leases in 
Registry of Deeds Office ; Rocqiie's Map of the ("omity Dublin ; " Dictionary of 
National Biography," vol. xliii., p. 117: Will of WiUiam Palliser ; Dublin Jour - 
mil, 2060) ; Piles Occurrences, vol. lix.. No. 29. 



RATHFARNHAM AND ITS CASTLE. 133 



becaaue possessed of the intoiesting sixteenth century mansion 
known as Old Bawn, near Tallaght. He was succeeded at Kath- 
farnliaiu on his death in 1721 by his eldest son, while a younger 
son, who took the name of Tynte. became the owner of Old Bawn. 
His eldest son, Edward Worth, who died at Rathfarnhani in 1741, 
and was buried with his father in St. Patrick's Cathedral, with 
much funeral pomp, was bequeathed, in addition to the property 
which ho inhei'ited, a considerable estate by his cousin, Dr. Worth, 
whose library is presei'\'ed in Dr. Stevens's Hospital, and was 
representative in Parliament for the borough of Knocktopher (i). 

Adjoining Mr. Palliser's demesne was a house sometime occupied 
by Mr. Robert O'Callaghan, an eminent lawyer, who nu^rried in 
1735 one of the daughters of Mr. Edward Worth, a voung ladv of 
great merit, as we are informed, who brought to her husband a. 
fortune of £10,000. Mr. Robert O'Callaghan, who represented the 
borough of Fethard in Parliament until shortly before his death 
in 1761, was the eldest son of Mr. Cornelius O'Callaghan. one of 
the most distinguished lawyers of his day, who became, through a 
vounsfer son, an ancestor of the Viscounts Lismore. At O'Ca!- 
laghan's house in Rathfaniham the Rev. Thomas Sheridan, 1 iie 
friend of Swift, and grandfather of Richard Brinsley Sheridan, who 
had been his schoolmaster, breathed his last, after uttering the 
oracular words, " Let it blow east, west, north, (u- south, the im- 
mortal soul will take its flight to the desired point." Soon after 
Dr. Sheridan's death in 1738 Mr. O'Callaghan's house became the 
residence of Mr. Balthazar John Cramer, who died in 1741, anil 
whose son took the name of Coghill, and became a ])aroiiet, ami sub- 
sequently of his widow, who was a daughter of the first Viscount 
Lanesborough. Amongst other resident-s at Rathfarnhani ahont 
that time we find the Recorder of Dublin, Haton Stannaid. > nc of 
the executoi^ of Swift's will, who represented Midleton in Pai lia- 
ment, and became Pi-ime Serjeant ; liicutcnant-ColoncI .lames 
Fountain, of the Hon. Colonel Onslow's Regiment of Foot, who died 
ill i7.'')r) at his house there ; jVlr. Jolm Ward, a brewer, whose house, 
with well-stocked gardens, was to be sold in 17 1 I Ijy his widow; Mr. 
Hiehard Oei riii" ; Aldeiniaii Thomas How, whose niece. Miss Marv 



(*) " Some Notes on the Irisli .Iiidiciarv in 'lif n'i^'ii i>t Clinrlcs II." in .Ituntiiil 
of the Cork Arrhnnloijirdl (Did II isfurinil Sor'ntij, ser ii., vol. viii.. [i. IS( ; Th, 
Irish liuildcr for IS'.M. |)|). 'JoS. -J^I : Piti\t Ornirrvnrc.^, vol. xw.. \m. 17; \nl. 
x.vwiii., .\o Wl: J)iih/i,i .Imirpal, .\n. Hill; |!in lili.icli^ ■ Miiiilum ,,\ Tarlia- 
iiicrit for Kilkenny " 



134 



PARISH OF RATHFAENHAM. 



Holmes, '' a most agreeable lady with .£20,000 fortune," married 
in 1747 the Rev. John Palliser, the cousin and heir of INIr. William 
Palliser ; Major Bowles, and Cajitain Adaans (i). 

About the year 1742 the house known as Whitehall, and the 
extraordinary cone-shaped tower encircled by a winding staircase 
adjacent to it, which stand at the back of Rathfai'nham demesne, 
near the road to Dundrum, were erected by a Major Hall, who pro- 
bably modelled the tower long known as '' Hall's Barn " on a 







y^'. 




Whitehall, Rathfarnham, in 1795. 

From a Plnfi in " The Sentimeninl und Masonic Magazine.''' 

similar structure called " the Wonderful Barn," erected by the 
Conollys about the same time near Castletown. The house, which 
in the eighteenth centui-y was described as beautiful, and in which 
a curious kitchen and panelled staircase are still to be seen, was 
afterwards the residence of the Rev. Jeremy Walsh, the curate of 
Dundrum, who married there in 1778 the widow of Thomas Eyre, 



(») O'hc Irish Builder for 1894, pp. 208, 222 ; " Swift's Works," edited by Sir 
Walter Seott. vol. ix,, p. 31.3 ; Pur\<t Occnrrrnccs, vol. xxxii.. No. 33 : vol. xxxv.. 
No. 72. vol. xxxvl.. No. 8; Di(hli» Journal. Xos. 1 ;").-). 1871. 203."), 2091, 2160, 
2322, 2393 : Journal of tlw Cork Historical and Arcliaological Socirfi/, ser. ii., 
vol. ii., p. 323; "Memoirs of Mrs. Letitia Pilkington," vol iii., p. 114: Will of 
Thomas How. 



RATHFARNHAM AND ITS CASTLE. 



135 



sometime M.P. for the borough of Fore, and is mentioned as a well- 
known place in the lists of carriage fares of that time (i). 

Rathfavnhani Castle, which, owing to their possession of Castle- 
town, had not been occupied by Speaker Conolly or his successoi", 
was, about the year 1742, purchased by the Right Rev. John 
IloatUv, who was at that time transhited from the Archbishopric 
of Dulilin to that of Ai'magh. Dr. Hoadly, who was the brother 
of the famous English Bishop of that name, was one of tlie gi*eat 
political prelates, but did not find the promotion of the English 
interest, which was the lu'st object with all of them, inconsistent 




:■»»■ U Liie 



"Hall's Barn" in i7«>,S. 

From II I'lulc <lr(iini Jn/ /•'. .J iikm. 

with exertions fur tlic inipi-ovement of agriculture. To this he 
directed both his skill and his piuse, and lie was beloved l)v tlio 
tenantry and landowners, amongst whom lie excited by his example 
and judicious rewards a spirit of enudation and a strong desire to 
become betto- fai-niers. In building, "' a,s. the most useful ;ind 
rational method of sup[)orting the honest and industrious poor," 
ho gave much eniplovmeiit. On his promotion to the R(m^ of 
Dublin in 1729 iVom that of Ferns, which he h.id |ircviouslv held, 
ho had builtj au episcopal juansion at Tallaght in place of tlio 



(') The SiniH)ii< tilal tiiitl Masanir Maqazi iii , \i>\. \ i., pi. i., |i. '.\ : .IoihikiI af 

the Comitji Kildmc Arr/itro/ogini/ Surii///, \<il. ii., ji. ItT'i ; " l!,il IiImiiiIi.iim, ' liy 

Rev. ('aiif)n Carr in AV?/' Irclanil Hi ri< ir. vni. \ii., p. ;{s ; II il,( niimi Miii/ir.iiw 
for ITT^^. |i. '<'U' : I'ni's Orcdrn nn n. \i)l. Ii.. \m. (iO. 



136 PARISH OF RATHFARNHAM. 

ruined feudal castle which he had found there, and on coming into 
possession of Rathfarnhain lie proceeded to lavish money on the 
restoration of the Castle, which ho put into a state of thorough 
repair and mado his home. 

Hoadly did not long occupy Rathfariiham, his death taking place 
there in 1746 from a fever said to have been contracted while super- 
intending workmen in the demesne. His life had been one of 
singular activity; in a letter to the Duke of Newcastle written a 
few months before his death he states that for the eighteen years 
and more which he had been in Ireland he had constantly, without 
one failure, attended the King's service, and that for sixteen years 
he had borne the burden of the administration in the Privy Council 
and in the House of Lords, and, much against his will, had taken 
a leading part in the management of the University. His wife, a 
lady distinguished for her virtues and endowments, had died two^ 
years before, and the Archbishop's remains were laid with hers in 
the quiet country church of Tallaght (}). 

Rathfarnham Castle then passed to Mr. Bellingham Boyle, who 
had married, in November, 1740, Archbishop Hoadly's only 
daughter and child — a young lady who inherited her father's taste 
for country pursuits. Dean Swift, who subsequently expressed 
great disti'ess at hearing she had the smallpox, in one of his 
delightful letters thanks her for a pig and a bowl of butter which 
she had sent tO' him, and threatens to tell all the ladies of his 
acquaintance that the sole daughter and child of his Grace of 
Dublin is so mean as to descend to understand housewifery, and 
to show her letter to every female scrawler in order that they 
may spread about the town that her writing and sjjelling are 
ungenteel and unfashionable, and more like a parson's than a 
lady's. Bellingham Boyle, who- was nephew of Henry Boyle, then 
Speaker of the House of Conimons, and afterwards Earl of 
Shannon, and who represented Bandon in Parliament, jiroceeded, 
after his marriage, to his LL.D. degree in Dublin University, be- 
came a Governor of the Workhousei in room of Mr. Balthazar 
Cramer, and a trustee of the linen manufacture, and on the recom- 
mendation of his father-in-law and uncle was appointed a Com- 
missioner of the Revenue. 



(^) " Dictionary of National Jiio(;i'a})liy," vol. xxvii., ]). "21 : Riitisli Museum 
Add. MS., 32707, f. 7!); iStuart's " Memoirs of Armagh," edited by Rev. Ambrose 
Coleman, p. 38.5; Dublin Gazette, June 16, 1744; J)nhlin Journal, No. 2019. 



BATHFARNHAM AND ITS CASTLE. 137 

Boyle aucl his wife were prominent in the Dublin society of their 
day, and William, fourth Duke of Devonshire, while Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, recognised their high position in society by 
dining with them at Rathfarnham when on his way to spend some 
days at Powerscourt. An advertisement of property stolen in 1751 
from the Castle of Rathfarnham sets forth at length descriptions 
of various gorgeous articles of apparel, including a suit of clothes of 
bloom colour, cross-barred and flowered with silver; another suit 
of yellow colour, bi'ocaded with silver and colours ; a third suit of 
lute string striped and brocaded on a white ground ; a grey 
duchess night-gown; a velvet mantle of cherry colour lined with 
white satin and bordered with ermine; and a piece of white satin 
quilted for a petticoat, embroidered with vine leaves in shades of 
green and brown stalks. In the midst of political intrigues, in 
which ho is said to have been allied with the astute Philip Tisdal, 
Boyle found time to sujjcrintend the farming of his demesne, and 
sent in July, 1762, from Rathfarnham to the Dublin market tlio 
earliest oats ever grown in Ireland. Five years later — a. few years 
before his death — he disposed for £17,500 of the castle and 
demesne (i). 

The purchaser was Nicholas Loftus, second Earl of Ely, and the 
Castle thus once more became the residence of a descendant of its 
builder. He was the fourth in direct descent from the second son 
of Sir Dudley Loftus, the eldest son of Archbishop Loftus, and 
inherited Sir Dudley "s Wexford estate. Both his grandfather and 
father had been prominent in public affairs; the former had been 
created Baron Loftus of Loftus Hall and Viscount Loftus of Ely, 
and the latter, after succeeding to those titles, had been promoted 
to an earldom under the title of Earl of Ely. The question of the 
mental capacity of the pui'chaser of Rathfarnham, as has been 
already mentioned in connection with the history of Killiney Hill, 
gave rise to a rnusi- nhhri' of the eighteenth century. His father, 
the first Earl of Ely, luul nuu-ried in 1736 the elder daughter and 
co-heiress of Sir Gustavus Hume, of the County Fermanagh. She 
died four years later, leaving as the solo issue of tlu' niai-iiage 
Nicholas, afterwards second Earl of Ely, and owner of Rallifai ii- 
liain. Tlie cliild, who was two years old at, the (iine (if liis niotliei's 
death, was then sent to live with his maternal grandmnl Iut, I.ady 



(') " Works of Swift," o.lilc.l hy Sir \Valt(M- Seott, vol. wiii.. p. l'O'.I. v.. I. \i\.. 
p. 208 ; Bciiriftrs " History of liandoii," p. 'X\\ ; Doiioufrlniiore l*iipcrs piii)lislicil 
i)y Historical .Marmscripts Comiiiissioii ; lluhtiii (-'nzdli, N'ov. 'Jil, ITlO; Ihdi/iii 
Joiinitil, N'o. 2')\'.] ; Pm'.i Orrnrnticr.s, vol. xxxviii.. i\os. "I'i. ^u , Vol. xl., .Xo. It. 
vol. lii.. No. ()-2, vol. lix., No. S'J, vol. Ixviii., No. 7(M»H. 



138 PARISH OF RATHFARNHAM. 

Hume, and remained under her care until her death, when ho was 
twelve years old. He was then taken by his father to live with 
him. His father led a dissipated life, and kejot the boy, who was 
acknowledged to have been of delicate constitution from his birth, 
in a state of the most complete subjection, treating him with the 
greatest cruelty and neglect. Through his mother the boy, on 
attaining the age of twenty-one, was entitled to her property, but 
owing to his weak state of health his father was able to withhold 
knowledge of this fact from hi}n, and to spend the money to which 
his son was entitled on his own pleasures. At the same time it 
was in the father's interest that the youth should appear capable 
of managing his own affairs, for, in the event of his incapacity 
being proved, the children of bis mother's only sister, who had 
married Mr. George Rochfort, brother of the first Earl of Belvedere, 
would have succeeded on his death to the property which he 
inherited from his niother, and with the object of showing that he 
was of sound mind the father had him returned to Parliament a 
few years after lie came of age for his pocket borough of Bannow, 
in the County Wexford. 

Before his father's death, which took place in 1766, the Roch- 
forts had instituted proceedings to have the cjuestion of the youth's 
capacity decided legally, and four months after his father's death 
a commission was issued to determine it. The conduct of the 
defence devolved on his father's only brother. Colonel the Hon. 
Heniy Loftus, the owner of Killiney Hill, who had represented 
the borough of Bannow and then represented the County Wexford 
in Parliament. The Rochforts alleged that the youth was an idiot 
or of unsound mind, and his uncle put forward the defence that 
his condition was entirely the result of the treatment which he had 
received from his father, and that he was capable of instruction, 
stating, in proof of the treatment which the youth had received, 
that on posting down to Claremont, his brother's seat in the 
County Wicklow, after his brother's death, he found the youth 
miserably clad and almost in rags, so infirm and debilitated as not 
to be able to walk about, totally illiterate, and in ignorance of the 
property to which he was entitled. The Commissioners, who 
included two Privy Councillors, two Masters in Chancery, a King's 
council, an alderman, and three other gentlemen, had the assistance 
of a jury, and after a trial lasting five days and a personal examina- 
tion of the young Earl, this jury, on which three Privy Councillors 
and other gentlemen of high degree served, found that the young 
Earl was not an idiot or of unsound mind. On appeal to the 
House of Lords their decision was upheld. 



RATHFAENHAM AND ITS CASTLE. 139 

Three moutlis after the trial in April, 1767, the Manor and 
Castle of Rathfarnham, the estate and niausion of his ancestors, 
was purchased for the young Earl, and money was raised to 
modernize and improve the structure. After a personal interview 
with Lord Bowes, then Lord Chancellor of Ireland, the vouno- Earl 
was appointed Governor of Fermanagh, and in December of that 
year it was announced that he had been pleased to gi'ant a pension 
to the widow of a worknian who had been killed at Rathfarnham 
by the fall of a wall. Afterwards the Earl's health became 
more unsatisfactory, and in the beginning of 1769 he was taken 
by his uncle to Bath, and subsequently to Spa, in pursuit of 
health. From the latter place they returned to Ireland in October, 
and on the voyage the young Earl contracted an illness from which 
ho died on the 12th of the following month. Eight days before his 
death he signed at Rathfarnham Castle a deed before one of the 
Masters in Chancery, and two days later he executed a will, leaving 
all he possessed to his uncle, in the presence of the Right Hon. 
John Ponsonby, the Speaker of the House of Commons ; Sir Henry 
Cavendish, father of the Parliamentary repoi*ter, mentioned in con- 
nection with the history of Booterstown ; and Sir James May. 

Henry Loftus, who appears so prominently in the pages of 
■■ Baratariana " as Count Henrico Loftonzo, now succeeded to the 
Viscounty of Ely and the ownershija of Rathfarnham Castle. His 
possession of his nephew's estate was not undisputed, and the Roch- 
forts instituted proceedings to upset his nephew's will, but its 
validity was upheld by Philip Tisdal in his capacity as Judge of 
the Prerogative Court. Count Loftonzo's success in this and in 
eveiything else was imputed by his enemies to political intrigue. 
There is no doubt that the Viceroy, the Marquis of Townshciul, 
was most an.xious to secure his support, and it was announced a 
year after the young Earl's death that " the great man " had been 
sumptuously entertained by a nobleman not far from Rathfarnham. 
and that since that time he had boasted of his conquests, wliich 
liad not, howevex", been attained witliout the promise of places of 
profit to eight of the peer's dependants. Matchmaking seems to 
liavo been an amusement of Count Loftonzo and his wife; in iho 
same ycai' in wliich Lord Townshend visited Rathfarnliani i( is 
recorded that a Wexford gentleman was married at Rathfarnliani 
Castle, the seat of the Right 1 1 on. Viscount Tioftus, to a y(nnig 
lady " of great merit and beauty, with cvoiy other accomplishment 
which can render the man-iago stato happy," and if rumour spoke 
truth Count Loftonzo's wife spared no cfVort to secure Lord Town- 
shend as huisband for her niece, the lovely Dolly Monro. 



140 PARISH OF RATHFARNHAM. 

The year 1771 saw the Earldom of Ely created for the second 
time in favour of Count Loftonzo, and on Angelica Kauflfmann's 
visit to Ireland, which then took place, she painted a picture of 
the newly-made Earl and his Countess. This picture, which now 
hangs in the Irish National Galleiy, is painted on one of the largest 
canvases ever used by the artist, and represents in a flowery garden, 
almost in life size, the Earl in his ermine tipi^et, and his Countess, 
in the full dress robes of a peeress, while near them are two beauti- 
ful girls, said to be the artist and Dolly Monro, and a negro atten- 
dant holding a cushion on which two coronets rest. Three years 
later the Earl had the misfortune tO' lose his wife, after a long 
illness; but, although Provost Andrews thought it would be impos- 
sible to find as amiable a successor, he was not long in filling up the 
vacancy, and subsequently we see him on the eve of St. Patrick's 
Day at a masquerade ball figuring as a hermit and his second wife 
as a washerwoman. On the institution of the Order of St. Patrick 
Lord Ely was named as one of the original knights, but was unable 
to attend the installation, and died a few months later in May, 
1783, at Bath. One of the obituary notices which appeared says 
that his death was nothing short of a national loss, as his fortune 
was spent in the improvement of his country and in encouraging 
honest industry amongst the poor, and another refers to his rapid 
advancement in life from the rank and revenue of a private gentle- 
man to a very rich earldom and great Parliamentary influence (i). 

Lord Ely's operations at Rathfarnhani Castle were on a scale 
of regal magnificence. In the decoration of the interior of the 
house the talented artists and skilled artizans then to be found in 
Dublin were employed, and in the drawing-room, the small dining- 
room with its exquisitely painted ceiling, the gilt room with its 
inlaid chimney-piece, and the stately ball-room, their work is still 
to be seen. Amongst those who were engaged in beautifying the 
house was Angelica Kauffmann, and panels painted by her adorn 
the elaborate ceiling of the drawing-room. In the demesne the 
noble gateway on the river Dodder exhibits the classic taste of the 



(1) Lease in Registry of Deeds Office ; " Old Dublin Mansion Houses," by Edward 
Evans in The Irish Bnilder for 1894, p. 242 ; Prerogative Cause Papers, Ely r. 
Rochfort in Public Record Office ; " Rathfarnliam Castle, its sale and liistory," 
by John P. Prendergast in The Irish Times for May 10, 1S91 ; Josiali Brown's 
" Reports of Cases in the Court of Parliament," vol. i., p. 450, vol. vii., p. 469 ; 
Dublin Journal, Nos. 4148. 6638 ; Pue's Occurrences, vol. Ixiv., No. 6653, vol. 
xlvii.. No. 6958; Will of Nicholas, second Earl of Ely; Gilbert's "History of 
Dublin," vol. ii., pp. 84, 85 ; Historical Manuscripts Connuission. Rcpt. viii., 
App.. p. 195; (hntloncns Magazine for 1783, p. 453; Freeman's Journal, vol. 
vii.. No. 125. 



RATHFARNHAM AND ITS CASTLE. 



141 



Earl and his extravagant conceptions. On visiting the Castle in 
1781 Austin Cooper was lost in admiration, and forty years later 
James N. Brewer refers to its splendours. After describing the 
Castle as we see it to-day, a square building with towers at each 
corner and a semi-circular extension on the southern side, Austin 
Cooper tells us that it was originally embattled and had small 




The Ct'ilins: of the Small Dining Room in Rathfarnham Castle. 

From (I r/iulograph hij T/ioiikis Ma,so)i. 

Gothic windows, but that a coping of stuiif had been substituted for 
the battlements and that the windows had Ix'cii iiindi inized. lie 
iiKiilioiis the poitico, consisting of a dome, (ui which tlic signs of 
the Zcjdiac were painted, suioported on eight Dniic ((iluiuns, and the 
hall. Tlic laltei-, he says, was lighted by three windows of stained 
glass, which have now disappcarcfl, made by Thomas .T(M-vais, who 
cxccut<;;d the wiiidnw designc:] hy Sir Joshua. Ucynolds in Ni'w 
College, O.xl'urd, and was oni.inicnl ( d with statues, Imsts, and unis 
on iiedcstals of variegated marble. Afterwards he in.spected a 



142 PARISH OF RATHFARNHAM. 



room, then called the gallery, in which he saw a cabinet of tortoise- 
shell and brass filled with ivory ornaments of rare beauty, and con- 
cludes by saying that a description of the other rooms, of the 
family portraits, of the paintings collected by the first Earl of Ely, 
and of the china, would require a volume (i). 

Henry, Earl of Ely, was succeeded at Rathfarnham by his 
nephew, Charles Tottenham, the son of one of his sisters, who had 
married the famous member of the Tottenham family known as 
" Tottenham in the boots," from his having appeared in the House 
of Commons in riding dress, and saved his country by recording 
his vote at the sacrifice of the sacred conventionalities of the period. 
Charles Tottenham, who took the name of Loftus, was made the 
subject of renewed litigation by the Rochforts, in which they were 
successful, but this defeat does not ajjpear to have seriously 
impaired his wealth, and soon after he succeeded to Rathfarnham 
he was raised to the peerage as Baron Loftus, and subsequently 
was created Marquis of Ely. The demesne at Rathfarnham, then 
remarkable for an aviary in which there were ostriches and many 
other rare birds, was thrown open by him to the public, for which 
he received high encomiums from the press, and the Lords Lieu- 
tenants of his day were entertained by him frequently in the gi'eat 
dining-room of the Castle ('-). 

The village of Rathfarnham at the end of the eighteenth cen- 
tury was said by Austin Cooper to be a small village with very few 
houses of the better class, and the residents in the neighbourhood 
were not numerous. Amongst those connected with Rathfarnham 
in the latter part of that century we find — the Rev. John Palliser, 
D.D., who succeeded to the residence of his cousin, Mr. William 
Palliser, and who died in 1795; Mr. Richard Wetherall, who died 
in 1752, leaving money for the endowment of a grammar school; 
Mr. Edward Slicer, who died in the same year at a very advanced 
age; the agreeable widow Slicer, who married in 1757 Sir Timothy 
Allen, sometime Lord Mayor of Dublin ; Mr. Benjamin Sherrard, 
an eminent linen manufacturer, who died in 1766 ; Mr. John Lam- 
prey, a young gentleman of unblemished reputation, who died in 
the same year at Waxfield ; Alderman James Horan, and Alder- 
man James Hamilton ; Sir George Ribton, the second baronet of 



(*) Cooper's Note Book; Brewer's "Beauties of Ireland," vol. i., p. 210; 
" Dictionary of National Biography," vol. xxi.x., p. 353. 

(2) Lodge's Peerage, vol. vii., p. 269 ; Rutland PaiDers, vol. iii., p. 83. pub- 
lished by Historical IManuscripts Commission ; Post Chaise Companion ; Dublin 
Chronicle, 1788-1789, [i]). 208, 255, 1790-1791, p. 90. 



RATHFARNHAM AND ITS CASTLE. 143 

the name, who built Landscape; and Mr. Garret English, an 
upright and active magistrate (for an assault on whom a man was 
in 1790 whipped from the bridge of Ratlifarnham to the upper 
end of the town), who lies buried in Dundrum graveyard. Amongst 
owners of property were the Presbyterian Church, which owned 
hind in Rathfarnham, originally leased in 1679 by Viscount Lis- 
burue to Daniel Reading, and subsequently sold by the Right lion. 
Thomas Conolly to the Rev. Richard Choppin, one of the ministers 
of the meeting house in Wood Street, Dublin, and Provost Hely 
Hutchinson, who owned Butterfield House, and gave the fair green 
to the village (l). 

The bridge at Rathfarnham was carried away once more in June, 
1754, by floods, caused by the greatest rain known for years, and 
one built in its place sulTcred the same fate. These disasters, 
Austin Cooper says, were due to the supports resting in the water 
on bad foundations, and a bridge of a single arch was, about the 
year 1765, thi'own across the river, which, from the fact that it 
rested on the solid banks, Cooper predicted would last for years. 
A ford near the present bridge at Orwell Road was sometimes used, 
and after crossing it in his carriage in the year 1773, Counsellor 
Walsh was robbed of his gold watch valued at 50 guineas. Samuel 
Derrick, who succeeded Beau Nash as Master of the Ceremonies at 
Bath, and for whom the gi'cat Samuel Johnson had a kindness, 
mentions that on a visit to Ireland in 1760, when driving from 
the County Kildare to Bray, he dined at Rathfarnham, and an inn 
bearing the Sign of the Ship existed there some years later. The 
manufacture of paper was caii'ied on to a vei*y considerable extent 
by a ^Ir. Manscrgh, who died in 1763, and by Mr. Thomas 
Slator, whose works were destroyed in 1775 by fire, and dye works, 
which were owned in 1752 by Mrs. Elizabeth Fisher, were estab- 
lished near the bridge. Nursei'ies owned by the Bruces, eminent 
seedsmen of the fairest character, supplied all manner of fiuit and 
forest trees, flowering shrubs, and green-house plants, and the early 
production of farm produce, already noted in connection with Mv. 
Bellingham Boyle's occupation of the Castle, was maintained by a 
barrel of new wheat being brought in 1768 on August 6th from 



(M Austin Cooper's Xntc Book ; Post Chaise Coinjiaiiioii ; K.rshair.t Mdf/a- 
zinc for \~~>2, p. (UiO ; Duhlhi Jonrvaf. .\os. •ioCiI. 2t>24 ; loin's Ocnnrcncvs. vol. 
liv.. No. 81. vol. lix.. No. ."{l. vol. Ixii., No. (i42il. v.il. Kiii.. N'o.s. ().-)(»], (mI'J ; 
Frffmnn's Jnuriiiil, vol. xii.. .\(». 17: Dnhliii Chronirli. IT'.IO IT'.tl, pp. 410, 4,S7 : 
Hilnrnuiv Mdfjiizitu- for \~H1. p. 3H7 ; Ball and Hamilton's " I'arish of Taney,"' 
p 31 : D'.AIton's " Histoi-y of (lie County Dulilin."' p. 7H7 ; " A sliort account of 
the FuikIs of the Presbyterian Chureh," \>y P.cv. .lames Arm.strong, Dublin, LSI."), 
p. W. 



144 PARISH OF RATHFARNHAM. 

Rathfaniliam to the Dublin Market. During the Volunteer move- 
ment Rathfarnham was often visited by the Dublin companies ; in 
1783 the Light Company of the Independent Dublin Volunteers 
made an excursion there on a Sunday in October, and after being 
sumptuously entertained by Alderman Horan, on whose lawn they 
went through their martial exercises, spent the evening " with the 
greatest good humour and cheerfulness " (i). 

Rathfarnhain Castle was dismantled by the Loftus family in the 
early jDart of the nineteenth century, and after having been occupied 
for a time by a family called Roper, under whom the demesne was 
used for dairy purposes, it was bought about the year 1852 by 
Lord Chancellor Blackburne. The neighbouring residence of the 
Pallisers, after the death of the Rev. John Palliser, joassed into the 
possession of the King's Printer, Mr. George Grierson, whose model 
farm was noted for the production of prize crops and cattle, and 
was sold subsequently to its present occujjants, the Convent of the 
Lorettoi (-). 



R ATHG AR. 



The lands now covered by the populous suburb of Rathgar, which 
lies between Rathmines and Rathfarnham, were in the centuries 
immediately succeeding the Anglo-Norman Conquest, the grange or 
home fann of the Abbey of St. Mary de Hogges — a convent for 
nuns of the rule of St. Augustine, which stood upon College Green, 
then called the Hogges or the mounds. At that time there were 
to be seen on the lands the Abbey's manor house, granary, and 
other farm buildings (for robbery from which one David Lugg was 
at the beginning of the fourteenth century sentenced to be hanged), 
and a wood of considerable extent. In the sixteenth century, 
when the dissolution of the religious houses took place, the premises 
and lands, which were returned as containing ninety acres arable, 
and three of wood, were held under the Convent by James Richards, 
and some years later they were granted by the Crown to Nicholas 
Segrave (3). 

(1) "Derrick's Letters," Dublin, 17<'7, p. 07; "Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy." vol. xiv., p. 399 ; Duhlin Journal, Nos. 2672, (57U1 ; Puc's Occurrences, 
vol. li.", Nos. 49, 74, vol. Iviii., No. 27, vol. Ix., No. 25, vrl. Ixiv., No. 6620, vol. 
Ixv., Nos. 6704, 6721, vol. Ixvii., No. 6959, vol. Ixviii., No. 7032 ; Frccman\<< 
Journal, vol. xi., No. 12. vol. xii.. No. 69. 

{^) Curwen's " Observations on the State of Ireland," vol. ii., p. 137 ; Hand- 
cock's " History of Tallaght." See for pictures of Rathfarnham in the nineteenth 
century, Gi/cfopa'dian Magazine for 1807, p. 385; Dublin Pruni/ Journal, vol. in., 
p. 369. 

(•■') D' Alton's "History of the County Dublin," p. 780; Justiciary Roll; 
Gilbert's "History of Dublin," vol. iii., p. 1. 



RATHGAR. 145 



At the beginning of the seventeenth century the castle or manor 
house of Rathgar had become the country residence of the Cusacks, 
one of the oldest and most leading mercantile families in Dublin, 
and was occupied by Mr. John Cusack, who was in 1608 Mayor of 
Dublin. His son, Mr. Robert Cusack, succeeded him. The latter 
had entered in 1617 as a law student at Lincoln's Inn, but his only 
appearance in legal proceedings seems to have been as defendant 
in a suit taken by the Prebendary of St. Audoen's in Dublin to 
compel him to restore an entry to that church which some member 
of his family had obstructed more than sixty years before by 
building a hoiise across it. He served as Sheriff of his countv, and 
during the troublous times after the Rebellion suffered severely by 
his loyalty to the throne. At the time the Duke of Ormonde w-as 
apprehensive of being besieged in Dublin by the Confederates, Mr. 
Cusack found it necessary to obtain orders forbidding the Royalist 
troops from cutting timber in the wood of Rathgar and taking his 
horses and carts while drawing his corn, and serious injury must 
have been done to his house during the Battle of Rathmines, when 
it was taken possession of by some of the Royalist soldiers. Being 
a Protestant, Mr. Cusack was allowed to remain in possession of his 
lands under the Commonwealth, and when the Restoration cam© 
we find him living there in a house which was rated as containing 
five hearths, his household including his wife, Alice, his eldest son, 
John, his daughter, Katherine, tw'O' men servants, and twO' maid 
servants, one described as a little short wench and the other as a 
full fat wench ; and the only other residents on the lands being two 
poor women (i). 

After Robert Cusack's death Rathgar became the residence of his 
second son, the Honble. Adam Cusack, one of the Justices of the 
Common Pleas. During the Commonwealth Adam Cusack, who 
had attained to the position of a Fellow in Trinity College, Dublin, 
entered as a law student in his father's Inn, and when the Restora- 
tion came, though lu- had nut ((iin])letcd seven years' residence, the 
period then required, he was allowed, on undertaking not to ])iac- 
tise in England, to be called to the Bar. In Ireland, as he had 
much influence, owing to his being by marriage a nephew of Sir 
Mauiice Eustace, the Lord Chancellor, ho came qiiickly to the 
fiont. and twelve yeai's after his call to the Bar, having filled while 



(•) D'Alton's " History of tlio ('(.imly Diil.liii," p. TSO ; CillxTt's " llislory of 
Diitjlin," vol. i., p. 27!*; Lincoln's Inn .Vdniissions ; Carte J'apirs, il.xiv.. fT. .'}.'l, 
315, and under date Jan. li, HJ(i7 ; Survey of fJaronies of I'ppereross and New- 
castle in I'lil.lic I'.ccord ()fli<c: Hrartli Monoy Roll: ('crKus of IC.-.a 



146 PARISH OF RATHFARNHAM. 



a practising barrister the position of a Justice and Chief Justice of 
the Provincial Court of Connaught, he was appointed to the 
Common Pleas. He appears to have been a delicate man ; during 
his judicial career he was for two years unable to discharge his 
duties through ill-health, and he died in 1681 at a comparatively 
early age-. His will indicates his benevolent character. Besides 
legacies to numerous relatives, he bequeathed sums of money 
tO' the poor in Rathfarnham and in St. Audoen's parishes; 
to the hospital in Back Lane, and to that at Oxmantown, 
now known as the Blue Coat School ; and to the prisoners in 
Newgate and " the Black Dog." He had married a sister of John 
Keatinge, who, during Adam Cusack's lifetime, became Chief 
Justice of the Common Pleas, and afterwards became well known 
on account of the part he played at the time of the Revolution, but 
had no children. His widow continued to reside at Rathgar, and 
married, as her second husband, Mr. Nicholas Cusack. The latter 
was ontlawed in 1690 for treason, but the property was subse- 
quently restored to the Cusack family (i). 

During the eighteenth century the castle or manor house fell 
into ruin, and Austin Cooper in 1782 found at Rathgar only the 
walls of a large and extensive building, which, he says, had a. modern 
appearance, with the remains of several offices near to them, and 
an entrance gateway, which, as a staircase indicated, had formerly 
been arched over, and which looked older than the niain structure. 
The lands were let to market gardeners and dairymen, including a 
certain John Mooney, whose son's disreputable career and death 
on the scaffold, for highway robbery, form the subject of a religious 
tract of the period, and it was not until 1753 that they were 
opened up for building by the construction of an avenue from the 
gate of Rathmines Castle, then occupied by Chief Justice Yorke, 
to Terenure. A sham fight of the Dublin Volunteers took place 
in 1 784 on the lands of Rathgar, and the ruined castle was fortified 
and occupied by some of the troops, who were only driven out of it 
with great difficulty (-). 



(*) " Some Xotes on the Irish Judiciary in the reign of Charles II.," Journal 
of the Cork Arclneological and Historical Socitti/, Ser. ii.. vol. vii., p. 226 ; Todd's 
" Graduates of the University of Dublin " : " Black Book of Lincoln's Inn," 
vol. iii., p. 3 ; Exchequer Intjuisition, Wni. and l\Iary, Dublin, Xo. 6. 

{■') " The Life of Nicholas :\rooney," in Hahday Tracts, vol 242. in Royal Irish 
Academy ; Cooper's Note Book ; Jjitblin Journal, Nos. 2(591), (371*7. 



TERENURE AND KIMMAGE. 147 



TERENURE AND KIMMAGE. 

The earliest mention of these lands, which lie between Rathfarn- 
ham and Crmnlin, is a grant made in 1206 to Audoen le Brun, 
Chamberlain of the Irish Exchequer, of the tithes of two carucates 
of demesne lands in Terenure and Kimmage held by Walter, the 
goldsmith. Soon afterwards in 1216 Hugh de Barnewall was 
gi'anted protection for his chattels, lands, and tenements in Tere- 
nure and Drimnagh, and from that time until the Commonwealth 
the Barnewall family was connected as owner with Terenure and 
Kimmage, as well as with Drimnagh. In 1221 the property of 
the Barnewalls was temporarily placed in custody of John de St. 
John, and in 1228 was restored to Reginald, brother of Hugh de 
Barnewall, who had succeeded to it through the death of his 
brother without heirs, and who was then actively engaged in the 
defence of Ireland for the King. A portion of the lands of 
Kimmage were, however, in the thirteenth century included in the 
lordship of Rathfarnham, and in 1269 Walter de Bret granted 
half a carucate of land in Kinnnage, which touched on the water- 
course froni Templeogue and on the lands of Terenure, to William 
de Tathcony, who transferred it for the yearly rent of one penny or 
a white dove to John de Hache. The latter, together with Thomas 
Russell, of Crumlin, was also granted a lease by Geoffrey le Bret 
on condition that they should supply him annually with wine value 
for twelve pence and admit him to dinner, failing which hospitality 
he presei-ved the right to claim both the wine and its value. In 
subsequent legal proceedings Felicia, widow of John de Hache, 
Alice, widow of John Russell, and Ral))h, son of John Russell, are 
mentioned in connection with the lands. 



The (iwiKMS of Terenure were generous benefactors to the chuicli. 
The Piior of St. Lawrence by Dublin agreed in 1300 with Reginald 
Barnewall and Johanna, his mother, to recover a. rent charge of 
20.^-. oil tli(> lands left by Wnlfiaii de l^aiiicwall to Ihat esta])lish- 
ment, and an owner of the same name graiilid portion of the lands, 
afterwards known as Si. .lolm's Leas, extending from the niano!- of 
St. Scpulcliic 1o the watercourse, to the Hospital ol' St. .lolin 
without Newgate. In the seventeenth century a castle and si.K 
other dwillings stood n|i(in lln' lands of Tcrcnuin^ and Kininiagc, 
which were then in the possession of Peter Barnewall. lie was 
residing there wIhh tlie Rebcllifni liroko out, and, acroiding to 
depositions made ijy his tenants, escaped plundii- imnself and 

I. •_' 



148 PARISH OF RATHFARNHAM. 

showed little real sympathy with those who were not so fortunate. 
One of those tenants, Thomas Mason by name, in deposing to the 
loss of cattle, horses, and household stuff, stated that Mr. Barne- 
wall refused to allow him to put his cattle for safety into his pigeon 
house park, and that after the cattle had been carried off, Mr. 
Barnewall advised him to employ for their recovery one of his 
servants called Toole, who, although he was armed with warrants 
from the Lords Justices and paid a pound by Mason, failed to find 
the cattle. From a subsequent deposition it appears that the 
cattle had been carried off from the Caim or Pass of Killenure, 
near Rathfarnham, by John Woodfin, a retainer of " the gi'and 
rebel,"' Toole, of Powerscourt, who acknowledged to Mason that he 
had taken them, together with sixty sheep belonging to the Arch- 
bishop of Dublin, and told him that some of the cattle had been 
stolen from him, but that he had recovered them and hanged the 
thief. Another of the tenants, William Dickinson by name, who' 
stated that the rent of his farm was £9-0 a year, deposed that Mr. 
Barnewairs late servant, Toole, and John Woodfin, were amongst 
those concerned in robbing him of a number of cattle and horses, 
and of a barrel of l)eer, which he appears to have considered of 
equal importance with the live stock (i). 

During the Commonwealth, Terenurc, which then contained a 
castle in good repair, and a dweiyng-hoiise which had been a mill, 
and Kimmage, on which there was also a castle, were leased to 
Major Alexander Elliott. The lands of St. John's Leas had before 
that time come into the possession of Nicholas Loftus, the younger 
brother of Sir Adam Loftus, and ancestor of the Marquises of Ely. 
There was stated to be a castle upon them, but it does not appear 
to have been occupied by the owner, as a return made in 1644 of 
property left by him in Ireland on going tO' England mentions his 
goods as being in Dublin, in charge of Mr. Recorder Bysse and 
other persons, and in the Castle of Rathfarnham. In a survey of 
Terenure made by the Parliament, which gives the population as 
twenty persons, a young farmer called John Sheppey is returned as 
tiie principal inhabitant, but shortly before the Restoration Mr. 
Erasmus Cooke appears as resident there in a dwelling-house with 
land, for which he paid a rent of £90 a year. After the Restorar 
tion Major Harman occupied a house rated as containing four 



(M Memoranda aiul Pleas Roll ; Svveetman's Calendar, UTI-IlT)!. Xo. 297; 
" The Norman Settlement in Leinster," by James IMills in Journal, R. S.A.I , vol. 
xxiv. p. 169 ; " Rathfarnham," by Rev. Canon Carr in New Ireland Revieiv, vol. 
xii.. p. 35 ; D' Alton's " History of the County Dublin," p. 775 ; Depositions of 
1641 (William Dickinson and Thomas ^fasori pf Terenure). 



TERENURE AXD KIMMaGE. 



149 



hearths at Tereiiure, only one of the other eight inhabitants, 
Samuel Dixon, having a house with two hearths, and Kiniinage 
was occupied by Abel Carter, and subsequently by Thomas Pegg (l). 

The site of the great house of Terenure in the eighteenth cen- 
tury is now occupied by the Carmelite College, and the demesne, 
divided about the beginning of the nineteenth century by the road 
from the village of Terenure or Roundtown to Tallaght, ran down 
to the river Dodder, joining there the lands of Rathfarnham, and 
including all the lands comprised in Bushy Park. It was the seat 




Terenure House now the Carmeiite College. 

of the Deane family, whose members, as representatives in Parlia- 
ment of the metropolitan county and of the borough of Inistiogue, 
in the County Kilkenny, were prominent in the political life of that 
period. Their residence at Terenure was due to the purclia.se in 
1671 of its lands, together with those of Kimmage and " the 
.Broads," for £4,000 from Richard Talliot, afterwards Earl of Tyr- 
connel, in whom the fee was then vested, by Majdr Jusopli Dcaiu'. of 
Crumlin. Majoi' Deane, who was a bi'otlier of one of the regicides, 
had served in the army of the Parliament, but was received into 
favour on the Restoration, and 1)erame nuMuber for Inistiogue and 



(') Cr()\\ri PiciiImI ; Diiwn Siiivcy ; Survey of I'ppcrcross and Xi'wcastle ; 
Carte Papers, vol. xii., f. 017; ('ciisiis dt' lfi."i!i; IIcMidi Money Kull ; Sulisidy 
KoIIh ; Book of Survey and Di.stribiitioii. 



150 PARISH OF RATHFARNHAM. 



Sheriff of the County Dublin, as well as owner of large estates. On 
his death in 1699 Terenure passed to his second son, Edward, who 
sat in Parliament for twenty-five years, for five of which he was one 
of the representatives for the County Dublin, and for the remainder 
of the time for Inistiogue. Edward Deane, on his death in 1717, 
was succeeded at Terenure by his eldest son, who bore the same 
Christian name, and who had been returned two years before as 
the second member for Inistiogue. The latter died in 1748, and 
Terenure was for a short time in the possession of his eldest son, 
who also bore the name of Edward, and sat for Inistiogue. An 
advertisement appeared from the last-named in 1750 announcing 
that the house of Terenure was to be set, and mentioning, amongst 
other attractions, that in the gardens, which contained about four 
acres, there were two large fish ponds stocked with carp and tench, 
and that the house commanded an agreeable prospect of the 
harbour of Dublin. A year later, in 1751, this young man, while 
at Harwich, was shot in a duel. As he was unmarried, Terenui-e, 
on his death, passed to his brother, Joseph Deane, the youngest son 
of the second Edward Deane, of Terenure. This owner of Terenure 
was the most distinguished member of his family ; he sat for many 
years in Parliament as member for the metropolitan county, and 
married the daughter and heiress of Matthew Freeman, of Castle- 
cor, in the County Cork, whose name his descendants bear. 
Amongst the tenants who occupied houses on the lands of Terenure 
under the Deanes we find at the beginning of the eighteenth cen- 
tury Mr. John Falkiner, who was Sheriff of the County Dublin in 
1721, and whose house afterwards came into the possession of Mr. 
Travers Hartley, sometime member for the City of Dublin, through 
his marriage to Mr. Falkiner's gi^and-daughter — the rise in the 
value of property during that century being shown in the fact that 
the house with thirty acres of land was leased in 1717 at a rent of 
£69 a year, in 1756 at a rent of £150, and in 1792 at a rent of 
£422 (1). 

The connection with Terenure of the family of Shaw, now repre- 
sented by Sir Frederick Shaw, Baronet, whose residence. Bushy 
Park, has been mentioned as forming part of the original demesne 
of Terenure House, dates from the latter part of the eighteenth 
century, when Terenure House was taken by Mr. Robert Shaw, 



(M Report Irish Record Commission, vol, iii., p. 372; Biirtchaell's "Members 
of Parliament for Kilkenny"; "Dictionary of National Biocrraphy," vol. xiv., 
p. 204 ; DuUin Journal, Xo. 2389 ; Exshaw's Magazine for 1751, p. 502 ; Leases 
ill Registry of Deeds Office 



TERENURE and KIMMAGE. 



151 



Controller of the General Post Office in Ireland and founder of one 
of the leading Dublin banks of his day, from whom tlie present 
baronet is fourth in descent. His appointment to the chief position 
in the Irish Post Office was due to his merit and abilities, and on 
his death in 1796 an appreciative notice which ajapeared in the 
Ilihernian Moycr.iiu' applauds his dignity, genei'ous temper, 
iniaffected piety, and extensive charity, lie was succeeded by his 
eldest son, Robert, who, after representing the Citv of Dublin in 
Parliament f(n- manv vcars, and serving as Lord Mavoi', was created 




Fortfield House. 



a baronet. Sir Robert Shaw luaiiicd the only tiaugliter and heiress 
of Mr. Abraham Wilkinson, and through the purchase of the lands 
of Terenure by his father-in-law l)ecame owner of tlu Deane 
property. On the construction of the load to Tallaght, Sir Robert 
Shaw moved his i-csidciicr to Bushy Parl<, and Ti icnure House 
became subsequently the i-esidence of Mr. Fiederick Bourne, in 
v;hose time it w,is noted for the Ijcauty of its gardens Q). 

Fortfield House, the line residence of Mr. Louis Pcnin I iatchell. 
which stands u|ion 1 he lands of Kimmagc, was built ahout tlu' year 



(') BurUe's "Peerage and Hju-oiiciajic ; lliln'rninti Magazine for 17%, pt. ii., 
p. 1 ; " Dictionary of National I5i()t;ra|)liy," vol. Ii., p. 435 ; Deeds in ])(w,ses,sion 
of Sir Frcdericj; Slia\\ ; Loiidons " i-'riivilojicclia (if (.'anlciiiii!.'," Lou. !S.'{(I. p 

in;).".. 



152 PARISH OF RAI'HFARNHaM. 



1785 by the illustrious Barry Yelverton, Chief Baron of the Irish 
Exchequer, and first Viscount Avonmore, one of the greatest 
orators that ever adorned, the Bar of Ireland. In its construction 
no expense was spared, and its walls display the work of the artists 
and artizajis who found employment in Dublin at that period. 
After the death of Lord Avonmore in 1805 Fortfield was sold to 
John, first Lord Clanmorris, and was demised by him in 1811 to Sir 
William MacMahon, sometime Master of the Rolls, from whom in 
1858 it was purchased by the Right Hon. John Hatchell, the 
grandfather of the present owner (i). 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

The remains of an ecclesiastical building in the old graveyard of 
Rathfarnham mark the site of a church dedicated to SS. Peter and 
Paul, which stood there at the time of the Anglo-Norman Conquest. 
During the thirteenth century the advowson was the subject of 
prolonged litigatiou, first between the lord of the soil, Milo le Bret, 
and the Archbishop of Dublin, and afterwards between the Arch- 
deacon of Dublin and the Priory of the Holy Trinity, to whom the 
Archbishop and Milo le Bret seem to have transferred their respec- 
tive claims. In 1225 the Pope assigned the determination of the 
dispute to the Pi-iors of St. John and of St. Thomas, Dublin, and 
of Conall, in the County Kildare, and as a result the church was 
assigned to the Priory. The dispute did not, however, end with 
this decision, and in 1253 the question was referred to the Dean 
and Precentor of the distant Cathedral of Lisniore for hearing. 
Ultimately about the year 1267 a settlement was arrived at between 
Williaui de Northfield, then Archdeacon of Dublin, and the Prioiy 
of the Holy Trinity, by which the church was assigned to him and 
his successors subject to the payment of twelve marks to the 
Priory; and, in the appointment of one of Northfield's immediate 
successors, Rathfarnham (which was assessed at the high ecclesi- 
astical valuation of twenty-seven marks), is called a prebend in the 
Cathedral of St. Patrick, in right of which the Archdeaeon was to 
be assigned a stall in the choir and a seat in the chapter. After 
the death of Northfield and again in 1301 the Priory attemj)ted to 
raise a claim to the church, but from Northfield's time until the 
nineteenth century it remained portion of the corps of the Arch- 
deaconry. When the Cathedral of St. Patrick was for a time 



(^) Deeds in possession of Mr, Perrln -Hatchell ; " Dictionary of National Bio- 
grajDhy," vol. Ixiii., p. 314. 



ECCLESIAS*riCAL HISTORY 153 

dissolved in the early part of the sixteenth century the rectory of 
Rathfarnluun, then leased to Sir John Allen, was the most valuable 
of those within the Archdeacon's corps. The tithes extended over 
townlands known as Rathfarnham, Newtown, Prestownland, Bow- 
danstown, Scholarstown, Terenure, Kimmage, St. John's Leas, 
and Rathgar, and had been leased by the Archdeacon to one 
William Wirrall for £40, while the curate, who held the glebe 
house and eleven acres of arable land, and was assigned the fees 
and oblations, had to pay the Archdeacon 26.^. in addition (i). 

At the beginning of the seventeenth century, when the church 
was served, as well as Donnybrook and Taney, by the Rev. Robert 
Pont, the fabric was stated to be in good repair, but some years 
later, when served in like manner by the Rev. Richard Prescott, 
although sixty persons attended divine service, it was said to be 
ruinous. Subsequently we find the church served by the same 
curate as Taney, the Rev. Thomas Naylor, and from 1640 to 1647, 
when the cui-e was returned as vacant, the Rev. George Hudson 
was in charge. During those troublous times the incumbent of 
Kilmannon, in the diocese of Ferns, the Rev. Davis Archer, took 
refuge at Rathfarnham, and under the Commonwealth the Rev. 
James Bishop, already meintioned in connection with Bullock, held 
for a time the cure of the parish. After the Restoration Rathfarn- 
ham, which, during the rule of James II., was sequestrated with 
Donnybrook, continued under the care of the same curate as 
Donnybrook and Taney until the year 1706, when the Rev. Henry 
Brenn was appointed to the sole charge of the parish. He resigned 
in 1711, and the Rev. John Owen, afterwards Dean of Clon- 
macnoise, was nominated as his successor, but does not appear to 
have discharged the duties, as the curacy is returned as vacant 
until 1718, when the Rev. Isaac Lake vvas appointed. He was 
succeeded in 1724 by the Rev. John Towers, in 1727 by the Rev. 
William Candler, in 1728 by the Rev. Richard Wybrants, in 1733 
by the Rev. Anyon Challenor, and in 1746 by the Rev. William 
Grueber. A cousin of the Pallisers, the Rev. George Thomas, 
followed Mr. Grueber in 1752, and continued curate of the parish 
until 1768, when his death took place. He was succeeded by his 
eldest son, the Rev. Walter Thomas, and subsequently by his son- 
in-law, the Rev. Philip Homan, a member of tlu' family seated at 
Surock, in the County Westmoath, who had niaiiii'd in 1763 "the 
atiiiablc Miss Mary Anne Tliomas." Mr. Homan was presented in 



(1) (Jhrist ('hiiicli Deeds; "' (rede iMilii," edited by Sir .Inliii (;ill>ert, |i|). Ill, 
13f); Sweetiimn's f'aleiidur, 1171 I-'")!, NO. IlM-J; 1 252 J 2S 1 , Xo. 1 J!tL> ; .Mason's 
'' Histdrv of St. I'atrieU's Cnthednd," |i|). 42-4(1. 



154 PARISH OF RATHFARNHAM. 

1789 with a piece of plate to mark the gi'eat esteem in which he 
had been held during a connection with the parish of twenty 
years (i). 

The church, of which some remains are still to be seen in the 
graveyard of Rathfarnham, became, about the year 1780, too small 
for the parishioners, who were returned in 1766 as including 347 
Protestants, inhabiting 82 houses, besides 797 Roman Catholics, 
inhabiting 154 houses, and, notwithstanding the fact that it was 
in 1770 selected by the Bishop of Elphin, Dr. William Goi-e, for the 
purposes of an ordination, it was in a very decayed state, as we 
are told by Austin Cooper, who says it was a plain building with 
a small chancel and a modern porch. A grant of £400 was voted 
in 1783 by Parliament for the construction of a new church, and 
after an order for a change of site had been obtained the foundation 
stone of the present edifice was laid in June, 1784, by the Rev. 
Philip Homan. Eleven years later, on June 7th, 1795, in response 
to a petition signed by, amongst others, the Marquis of Ely, Barry 
Yelverton of Fortfield, and Sir George Ribton of Landscape, it 
was consecrated for divine worship. In the eighteenth century the 
residence of the clergymen was the house known as Ashfield, now 
the seat of Mr. John Denis Tottenham, and in the early part of the 
nineteenth century of the eminent Sir William Cusac Smith, 
Baron of the Exchequer (-). Towards the close of the eighteenth 
century two public schools for the children of the poor were 
established in the village (3). 

(') Regal Visitation of 1(515; Archbishop Bulkeley's Report, p. 155; Carte 
Papers, vol. xxi., f. 555 ; Civil List of Ministers' Yearly Salaries, 1655-1660 ; 
Diocesan Records ; Church Miscellaneous PajDcrs in Public Record Office ; E.i- 
shaiv's 2Iagazine for 1746. p. 651 ; Will of Rev. George Thomas ; Pue's Orcurrencea, 
vol. Ix., Nos. 18, 24; Duhlin Chronicle, 1788-1789, p. 40; 1789-1790, p. •232; 
Lyons' " Grand Juries of Westmeath." 

(-) A mural tablet to the memory of Barry Yelverton was erected by Sir William 
Cusac Smith ^for whojn see notice in " Dictionary of Xaticnal Biograjahy," vol. 
liii., p. 155) in Rathfarnham Church. It bears the following inscription : — 
" In the adjoining cemetery are deposited the mortal remains of Barry Viscount 
Avonmore, late Lord Chief Baron of the Court of Exchequer in Ireland, who 
departed this life on the 19tli day of August, in the year of our Lord 1805. In 
consideration of having long been honoured with his lordship's friendship Sir 
William Cusack Smith, Baronet, has obtained a kind permission of which he 
avails himself with gratitude antl pride by consecrating to his respected memory 
this tablet. It is a plain one but it bears the name of Yelverton, and therefore is 
not unadorned. The abilities and worth which it might with truth record it. how- 
ever, cannot be necessary to commemorate here, of merits so recent and so eminent 
as his. on the minds of the present generation the impression must be strong ; 
while considering the eventful periods which his life embraced, and the elevated 
and active sphere in which it was his lot to move, to transmit those merits to pos- 
terity seems the task of the historian to whom, accordingly and fearlessly, it is 
surrendered by the friend." 

(^) Religious Returns of 1766; Cooper's Note Book; Pue's Occurrences, vol. 
Ixvii., No. 6928 ; Duhlin Journal, Nos. 6714, 6808 ; Diocesan Records ; Hiber- 
nian Magazine for 1790, \>. 94, 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 155 

Under the Roiuaii Catholic Church the parish of Rathfarnham 
formed originally portion of the Union of Tallaght, and in 1697 we 
find it served by the Rev. Timothy Kelly, who was tlien living at 
Oldcastle. His successors have been, in 1730, the Rev. Nicholas 
Gibbons; in 1750, the Rev. Owen Smyth; in 1766, the Rev. 
Robert Bethel, who is buried in the graveyard at Whitechurch, and 
in whose time £200, which had been collected for the purpose of 
building an addition to the chapel at Rathfaniham, was stolen 
from the vestry; in 1781, the Rev. William Ledwidge ; in 1810, 
the Rev. Nicholas Kearns ; in 1832, the Rev. Laurence Roche; in 
1851, the Rev. William M-Donuell ; in 1864, the Rev. Daniel 
Byrne; in 1868, the Rev. Nicholas O'Connor, afterwards Bishop of 
Ballarat ; in 1874. the Rev. Robert Meyler ; in 1894, the Rev. 
Thomas Kearney; and in 1900, the Rev. Pierce Gossan (i). 

The succession of clergymen under the Established Church, after 
the Rev. Philip Homan, has been as follows: — in 1789, the Rev. 
John Lyster ; in 1793, the Rev. Henry MacLean (-), who served 
the cure for forty-four years, and in whose time Archbishop Magee 
was laid to rest in the old graveyard (3) ; in 1838, the Rev. George 
Augustus Shaw and the Rev. Benjamin Bunbury ; in 1842, the 
Rev. John William Finlay ; in 1844, the Rev. John James Digges 
La Touche; in 1851, the Rev. Thomas Neligan Kearney, in whose 
time the palish was severed from the corps of the Archdeacon of 
Dublin; in 1854, the Rev. Lancelot Dowdall ; aiid in 1884, the 
Rev. James Sandys Bird. 



(1) D'Alton'.s " History of the County Dublin." p. 708 ; Pxr's Occurrevces, vol. 
Ixii., No. ()384, vol. l.wiii., No. 70-28. 

(2) A mural tablet in Kathfarnhain Church bear.s the following inscription : — 
"In a vault adjoining to this House of (Jod lie the mortal renuiins of the Rev. 
Henry MacLean, Curate of the parish of Rathfarnham and Magistrate for the 
Co. Dublin, 44 years. His j)arishioners unite in this testimonial of love and esteem 
for their departed friend whose kindly numners, strict integrity, and unostentatious 
charity endeared him to the rich and poor of an extensive neighbourhootl. He 
died regretted on the 2nd of March, 1838, aged 68 years." 

(^) See for inscriptions on tombs and mural tablets, Jouriinl of the Association 
for the Preservation of the Memorial of the lUitd, Ireland, vol. ii., pp. 83, 479, vol. 
v., p. .55. 



INDEX 



Adams, Sainiiol. 
Ashbourne, Sir Elias, 
Aslifonl, William. 
Asliwoith, Thomas, . 



Page 
. 32 
. 31 
. 93 
. 54 



Bacon, John, . . . . 1 1 "J 

Bacon, Sir John, . . .44 

Bagods, The, of Baggotrath, . 43 
Bcferenccs to, . 4, 31, ')(). (KJ 

Barn, Wonderful. . . . 134 

Barnard, William, Bishop of 

Uerry, . . . .10!) 

Barnewalls, The, of Roebuck. 77- 
80; of Terenurc. 147. 

Barralet, John J., . . .40 

Barry, 8ir Edward, . .5(5 

Bathe, John de, ... 4 

Battle of Rathmines, . 4.S. 1(C2 

Bicknor, Alexander i\v. Archbishop 
of Dublin, . . . . <)7 

Blackburne, Francis, Loid Chan- 
cellor of Ireland, 80, 114, 144 

Bleaching Green at Priesthouse, 
55 ; at Roebuck, 78. 

Booth, Hugh, . 

Borrs, The, of Balally, 

Bradstreet, Sir Samuel, 

Brandon, Countess of, 

Brets, The, of Rathfarnham, IN-lKi 

Bridges— Ball's Bridge, 32 ; 
Donnybrook, 55 ; .Milltowii, 
lll-l"l2 ; Rathfarnham. I Mi. 
12(j, 1.30. 143. 

Briggs, The, of .Miiltown, 

Bruns, The, of Roebuck, . 

Burgoyne, Darljy, 

Butler, Hon. .lohn, 

Butler, Theol>al(l dc, . 

Buttcrfield, Henry, . 



. 112 
74-75 
. 20 
. 20 



110 
77 

I2C. 
71 
51 

121 



Carleton, Viscount, . 

Cars, Ringsend, 

Casboi-ouL'li, Ceoi'gc, 

Cashell, John, .... 

Castles — Balally, 74 ; Hocjters- 
town, 23 ; Donnybrook, 51- 
54 ; I)undiiim, 07 71; Mer- 
rioil, 4 21 ; |{at htiiiiihain, 
1 14 144 ; Kathgar, 145 140 ; 
Rathmines, 101 107 ; Roc- 
buck, 77-80; Simmonscourt, 
31 32 ; Tercnure, 147-148. 



3<) 

128 

45 



Page 

Cave, Thomas. . . .35 

Cavendish, Sir Henry, . . 29 

Chamberlaine, William Tanker- 
ville. Justice of the King's 
Bench, . . . 73, 79 

Chetwynd, Viscount, . . 56 

Churches, Old — Donnybrook, 57- 
03 ; Dundrum, 95-99 ; Irish- 
town, 39, .")9 ; .Merrion, 7, 58, 
Rathfarnham, 1 52- 1 ').'>. 

Clahulls, The, of Dundrum, . 00 

Clare, Earl of. Lord Chancellor of 

Ireland. . . . 50, 92 

Classon, John. . . .111 

Clayton, Bishop, . . (')1,80 

Clergymen, Succession of, of the 
Irish Church — Donnybrook, 
58-03 ; Dundrum, '90-99 ; 
Irishtown, 00 ; Rathfarnham, 
153-155. 

Clergymen, Succession of, of the 
Roman Catholic Church — 
Donnybrook, 58, 01 ; Dun- 
drum, 97 ; Irishtown, 02 ; 
Rathfarnham, 155. 

Cloncurry, Nicholas, 1st Lord, . 72 

Conolly, Speaker, . . . 135 

Convent of St. Maiy de Hogges, . 144 



. 148 

. 20 

21. 78. 141 

. 23 



Cooke, Erasmus. 

Cooley. Thomas, 

Cooper, Austin. 

Coringliam, John. 

Cork, Richard, 1st Karl ni. . 121 

Coi-nwalsh. James, Chief Baron 

of the Exclie(|uer. 5, 44, 117 

Cramer, Balthazar .lolin. . . 133 

('I'ofton, .lames, . . . 80 

Cromwell, Oliver, . . 37, 53 

Cruise, Sir John, 4. 22. .31. 44 

Cusacks, The, of Rathgar, . 145 140 

Cusack, Adam, Justice of the 

Comnu)n Pleas, . . . 145 

Davis, Ensign Thomas. . .10 

Dartasse, Sir Jcnico, . . 

Dawson, Hon. James .Massy, . 27 

Deanes, The, of Teremin", . . 149 

Decker, Sir .Matlliew, . . 90 
Dejean, Lieut -Oencral Leuis. . 56 

D(!nison, W'illiam, . . . 128 

Denny. Lady .\nne, , . 28 



158 



INDEX. 



Page 




Page 


Derrick, Samuel, 


143 


Gardens, Public, at Black 


■ock. 




Dickinson, William, . 


US 


29 ; at Kanelagh, 109. 






Dillon. Jlajor Cary, . 


16 


Geering, Richard, 


• 


133 


Dixon, Robert, 


126 


George, Denis, Baron of the 


Ex- 




Dobsons, The, of Diindruni. .14. (ii 


)-7l 


chequer. 


• 


56 


Reference to, ... 


74 


Giflord, John, . 


• 


73 


Dolierty, John. Chief Justice of the 




Goats' milk cure for Consunij)- 




Common Pleas, 


26 


tion, .... 




72 


Doyne, Lady Anne, . 


26 


Goodwyn, Bishop, 


54 


, 89 


Dowdall, John, 


6 


Gough, Viscount, 




26 


Downes Family, The, of Donny- 




Graham, William, 




126 


brook, .... 


56 


Granard, Earl of, 




32 


Downes, William, Lord, Chief Jus- 




Green, Sir Jonas, 




107 


tice of the Kinii's Bench, 56, iS. 


,79 


Greene, Richard, 




126 


Drake, John, Mayor of Dublin, . 


31 


Grierson, George, 




144 


Dudgeon, J. Hume, . 


79 








Dunton, John, . . 30, 


130 


Hall, Lieut.-General Henry, 




79 


Elliott, Major Alexander, . 


148 


Hamilton, Alderman, 




142 


Ely, Earls of. See under Loftuses 




Harcourt, Sir Simon, 




13 


of Rathfarniiam. 




Harman, Major, 




148 


Emmet, Dr. Robert, . 


80 


Harolds, The, of Rathfarnham, . 


116 


English, Garret, 


143 


Hatchell, Louis Perrin, 




161 


Eustace, James, 3rd Viscount 
Baltinglass, 


117 


Health Resorts. Dundrum, 


72: 




Rathmines, 107 ; Rathfarn- 




Eustace, Rowland, Baron of Port- 




ham, 130. 






lester, .... 


6 


Hellen, Robert, Justice of 


the 




Exshaw, John, Lord Mayor of 




Common Pleas, . 




56 


Dublin, .... 


80 


Herring Fishery, 


8 


, 33 


Fair of Donnybrook, 49, 55 


, 57 


Higginson, John, 




124 


Falkiner, John, 


150 


Hill, George, 




32 


Farming, . . 24, 135, 


137. 


Hoadly, John, Archbishop 


of 




143, 


144 


Armagh, 




135 


Ferneley, Lieut. -Col. Philip, 


37 


Holies, John, 1st Earl of Clar 


e, . 


17 


Finglas, Patrick, Chief Justice of 




Hone, Alderman Nathaniel, 




73 


the King's Bench, 


8 


Hopkins, (ieorge. 




128 


Fisher, Elizabeth, 


143 


Horan, Alderman James, 




142 


FitzGerald, Lord Edward, . 


29 


Horse Races, 


27, 


113 


FitzGerald, Right Hon. James, . 


26 


Hospital of St. John without New- 




FitzGerald, Maurice, . 


43 


gate, .... 




147 


Fitzwilliams. The, of Merrion, 1 


-21. 


Houses — Barry House, 50 ; 


Bo- 




44-47, 67-69, 80-95 


land Hall, 106 ; Bushy Park, 




Rejerences to, 23, 31, 32, 33, 


35, 


1.50; Carmelite College, 


149 ; 




50, 58, 60, 62, 109, 


116 


Castle Dawson, 27 ; Fortfield, 




Flood, Warden. Chief Justice of 




151; Fort Lisle, 28; Frescati, 




the King's Bench, 
Fortescue, Faithful William, 


54 


29 ; Lisaniskea, 28 : Loretto 




75 


Convent. 131 ; Merville. 
Mount Merrion, 80; Nu 


79; 

tley. 




Fortick, Sir William, 


56 


.56; St. Helens, 25 ; Sans S 


ouci, 




Foster, Anthony, Chief Baron of 




26 ; Whitehall, 154 ; Wick- 




the Exchequer, . 


79 


ham, 71 ; Willbrook, 


109. 




Fountain, Lieut. -Colonel James, 


133 


How, Alderman Thomas, . 




133 


Fox, Thomas, .... 


24 


Howth, Lord, . 


101, 


105 


Frambald, John, 


30 


Hyndeberge, Nicholas dc, . 


• 


43 



INDEX. 



159 



Page 



Inns — at Doniiybrook, riC) ; at ^rill- 
town. Ii;5': at Kanela_ij;h, 110; 
at Rathfarnhani. 130. 14:{ ; 
at Ringscntl,37.40; at Sandy- 
mount, 33. 

Interments at Donnvhrook and 
Ringsend, .... 

Iron Mills. . . 77. SO, 

Islip. Walter de. 



Jaekson, Heniy, 

Jafifrav- Alexander, 

James II., King, . . 37, 

Jans, Robert, .... 

Jervais, Thomas, 

Jocelyn. Robert, 1st Viscount, 
Lord Clumetdlor of Ireland, 

."i4. ()1, 

Johnston. Hugh, 

Jones, Henry, .... 

Jones, Owen. .... 

Kane, Sir Robert, 

Kauffinann, Angelica, 

Kellie, Lieutenant John, 

Kelly, Rev. Thomas, 

Kinahan, Daniel, 

Kinahan, Sir Edward Hudson, 

King, Archl)ish()j), (io, S3, loti. 

King, Sir John, 

King, The Ladies. 

Kirwan, \'eiv Re\-. Walter Hlake, 

Knaf)ton, \.(>yi\. 

i..acy, Waltii- dc, 

Lanesborough, Robert, 3rd lOail of. 

La Touche, James Digges, . lili, 

La Touche, Peter, .m.p., 

Leech, Richard, 

Lewj's, Sir I'ctcr, 

Lighton, Sir Thomas, 

Lisle, .liihn, I si Lord, 

Ijjtton, William, 

Loft uses. Till-, of Katlifar'idiaiii, 

I 17 
Jieferences to, . .11 _. 

Lords Lieutenants and Lord i)e- 
|)iities — Rerkeley, Lord, 37 ; 
riiidiester, Sir -Artiiur, 'I'l, 37; 
f'roiiiwell, Henry, IS, 37; 

I )evori-liir !■. William, 3rd 
l)ukc ot. 10 ; l)c\-onshii-e, 
Willi;iin. nil hiiki- of, »(), 
107, i:!7 ; iJoi -ri, |)ukc of, 



(il 
110 

4 

SO 
80 
78 
4.") 
141 

S() 
113 
125 

()9 



140 
7-2 

107 
73 
71 

L30 
4() 

113 
!)S 
2() 

4!) 
2() 
(•)3 
92 

(is 

111 

79 

2S 



I I 

IS 



Page 

80 ; Essex, Earl of, 120 ; Fitz- 
williaui. Sir William, 120 ; 
Halifax, Earl of, 40, 57 ; Har- 
rington, Earl of, 89 ; Hert- 
ford, Earl of, 40; Northum- 
berland, Earl of, 40 ; Sidney, 
Sir Henrv, S, 10; Strafford. 
Earl of, " Ktl, 121 ; Sussex, 
Earl of, 10 ; Townshend, \am\\, 
139 ; Wharton, Earl of, 40. 
Loretto Convent, . . 131. 144 

Louth. Oliver, 4th llaron, . . 12 

Madden, .Mr. Justice, . . 55 

Magee, Archbishop, . . . 155 

Mann, Isaac. Rishop of Coik. CO. S!). 97 



Mansergh, Mr., 
Manufactures, 77. SO. Ilo 
Marisco, Christiana dc, 
Marny, William de, . 
Mason, Thomas, 

Massacic at Cullenswood, 108 ; at 

Simmonscourt, 29. 
M'Kay, William, 
Michael, Thomas de St., 
Milltown, Earl of. 
Mineral Springs, . . 72, 

Misset, Walter, 

Moenes Family, 'I'lic, of Rath- 
mines, .... 

Mossoms, The, .... 

Mountmorres, Viscount, 



. 143 

13. 143 

3. 22 

. 23 



148 



11 
112 
130 

49 

1 00 
32 
27 



Mountney. Itirhan 
the i<]xchci|iicr, . 

Naily, William. 
Newburgh, Arthur, 
Nottingham, Robert dc. 
Nutting, Sir' .lolm. 

O'Callaghan, Robert, 
Ogilby, .lohri, 
Olof, Richard dr St.. . 
Oyster- Red, 

I'alhscr, William. 
I'.illi^cr-, Rev. John, . 
I'alriierston, Viscount. 
I'apcr Mills, 
I'arricll, Thonuis, 
Pai-sons, Sir Laurence, 
Parsons, Sir' William, . 
rcai'ii'. Sir' Ld w ari I Lo\ c 
l'irior.\, Matthew, 
I'cmlirokc, l']ai-ls ot, , 



har'ori o 



32, S9 



.")." 


, 1)1 




4 




25 




1 33 




1 24 


30, 


33 




40 




13! 


LSI. 


lit 




KM I 


I 1 3. 


II. ■! 




101 




121 


5L 


121 




1 2S 


8( 


» 95 



160 



INDEX. 



Page 
44 



Perrers, Sir Edward, . 

Perry, Anthonj-, 

Pigeon House, . 

Poer, Sir Eustace de la, 

Poolbeg Lighthouse, . 

Potts, James, . 

Poulter, Anthony, 

Port of Ringsend, 

Presbyterian Church, Property of, 143 

Printing Press at Rathfarnham, 130 

Priory of All Saints, 49, 50; of 
Holy Trinity, 31, 33, 152; of 
St. Lawrence, 147. 



42 
G7 
39 
80 
128 
35 



Radclifle, Sir George, 
Randall, John, 
Ranelagh, Viscount, 
Rats, Invasion of, 
Reading, Daniel, 
Rebellion of 1641, 



. 101 

. 113 

. 39 

. 21, 131 

59, 128, 130, 143 

13, 24, 32, 53, 
68, 77, 101, 109, 111, 123, 
145, 147. 



Reynolds, Thomas, 
Reyley, Thomas, 
Riall, Captain Lewis, 
Ribton, Sir George, . 
Rideleford, Walter de, 2, 
Ridgeway, Sir Thomas, 
Ridge way, William, . 
Roberts, William, 
Roscommon, Earl of, 
Ryves, Sir William, . 



. 71 

. 24 
55 
142, 154 
, 30, 49, 82 
. 120 
. 75 
55 
. 26 
. 23 



Saints — St. Broc, 57 ; St. Ulave, 
73 ; SS. Peter and Paul, 152. 

St. Lawrence, Viscount, . .113 

Sarsfield, Robert, . . .45 

See of Dublin, property of, (i7, 10(», 108 

Shaws, The, of Terenure, . .150 

Shelley, Sir John, . . .82 

Sheridan, Rev. Thomas, . .133 

Sherrard, Benjamin, . . .142 

Shore, Captain William, . . 106 

Slicer, Edward, . . .142 

Slator, Thomas, . . .143 

Smith, Sir William Cusac, . .154 

Smothe, Thomas, . . .31 

South Wall, . . . .38 

Starmard, Eaton, . . .133 

Stewart, Lieut. -General James, . 27 

Stock, Stephen, , , .73 







Page 


Stoyte, Sir Francis, 


. 


. 53 


Sullivan, Cornelius, . 


• 


. 95 


Tomlinson, Robert, . 




. 113 


Tour, Lieutenant Francis, 


. 37 


Trimlestown, Lords of. 


See under 


Barnewalls of Roebuck 


. 


Turbett, Robert, 


. 


. 75 


Turner, Robert, 


. 


. 69 


Twigg, Thomas, 




. 53 


Tyrconnel, Earl of. 


See 


under 



Fitzwilliams of Merrion. 

Usshers, The, of Donnybrook, 50-53 
Rcjcrcnces to, . .8, 69, 109 

Ussher, Christopher, . . .24 

Vavasour, Counsellor William, 
Verneuil, Henrj' de, . 
Vernon, John Edward, 
Verschoyle, Richard, 



Volunteers, Dublin, 



50 
95 

95 
78, 144, 146 



Wainwright, John, Baron of the 

Plxchequer, . . .86 

Walhope, John de, . . .74 

Wallop, Sir Henry, . . .117 

Walshes, The, of Balally, . . 74 

Walsh, Ensign Robert, . .37 

Walter, Theobald, . . .43 

Ward, John, . . . .133 

Ward, Thomas, . . .109 

Weaver, John, . . .32 

Wesley, Richard, Lord Mornington, 24 

Westby, Francis Vandeleur, . 75 

Westmeath, Robert, 1st Earl of, 37 

Wetherall, Richard, . . .142 

Wharton, Marquises of, . . 129 

White, John, . . . .71 

Whittingham, Archdeacon, 55, 61 

Whittingham, Counsellor, . . 32 

Wight, Archdeacon, . . .26 

Wilks, Robert, . . .130 

Winstanley, Richard, . . 53 

Withers, Lieutenant John, .16 

Woodward, Robert, . • . .53 

Worths, The, of Rathfarnham, . 132 

Worth, William, Baron of the Ex- 

chcc^uer, .... 132 

Yelverton, Barry, 1st Viscount 
Avonmore, Chief Baron of the 
j Exchequer, . . 152, 154 

Yorke, Sir William, Chief Justice 
I of the Common Pleas, 89, 100 








UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 

Los Angeles 

This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 



UMW 

MAY 2 7 1987 

JUIIIt)9198^ 




Form L9-10ni-l, '52(9291)444 



-■"^rt-^t 



WMyh^^^ 



a^ 




'M 



It 


m 


^1 


ffi H 1 












Sm^ 












^ 




% 
f 




m 








% 


r 





r-'« 






;^ 






•3^^*^iU 



?v^ 


WM 


i 


^ 


Si 






lUiIi 




5 


m 


i 


Kl^ 


n*b 














^^ 


1 


^ 





^ 



,^ 



DA 



Ball - 



A history oi 

D/'^.'K^l the County Du: 




v.. 



NOV £ 8 \9h_ 



3 1158 01 



^ -.,'£■- 



84 6812 



DA 
990 

D75321 



V.2 




■,'v 



4 Js 



UC SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY 







ilik^ 



^i<;; 



W^' 




.v^ 




,ii.a... \^''' ;-l"-,'